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  • Created by: TGHK
  • Created on: 17-05-16 11:48

THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM

*MATTHEW , MARK, LUKE : All have similar aproach to life of Jesus
*JOHN : Writes about things not found in the other 3 Gospels

  • People nowadays think Mark wrote the original , then Mathew and Luke rewrote their versions.
  • MARKS gospel is the shortest but events found in his Gospel are longer than in Matthew and Luke - it's likely they condensed the stories
  • Almost all The material recorders by Mark is found in either Matthew or Luke.
    661 verses of Mark 631 found in the other 2
    *Marks account is a rough description of event , likely the other 2 tidied up his works.

    MARK

    MATTHEW. Q. LUKE

    M. Quells/source L

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EVIDENCE OF JESUS

*Almost all infowe have comes from Bible
*Other Evidence confirms Jesus a real person worked and died 2000y ago in 1st century Palestine.

  • CORNELIUS TACITUS ( 55 - 117ce) Roman Historian, explains how Nero blamed the Christians for the fire in Rome 64 ce. He writes about a group of Christians and Christ Jesus from whom they took his name & who was put to death by Roman Govenor Pontious Pilot during the reign of Emporer Tiberius.
  • TRANQUILUS SUETONIUS ( 69-140ce) wrote about Emperor Claudius who ruled shortly after Jesus was crucified. "Christus urged on the Jews"

*THE TALMUD : Collection of Jewish writings put together from 70ce. Mentions, " On the eve of the Passover they hanged " Jeshu" ( Jesus). He practisedBlack Magic and led the Jews astray"

*FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS (37-100ce) Important Jewish historian, most important witness's to existence of Jesus . "There was a wise man Jesus, son of Joseph. Those who followed I'm thought he was Gods chosen leader. And when Pilate condemned him to the cross those that loved him did not forsake him.

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LUKE - BIRTH OF JESUS

Caesar Augustus issued a decree that a Venus should be taken of the entire Roman world.
*" Joseph went from the town of Nazareth in Galilee to Judea, to Bethlehem the town of David , because he belong to the town of David.

  • He went to register with Mary his wife who was expecting a child.
  • She gave birth to her firstborn, a son. She wrapped him in cloths and placed him in a manger, because there was no guest room available for them.
    And there were Shepherds living out in fields nearby, an Angel of the Lord appeared to the, and the glory of the Lord shone around them. " Do not be afraid. I bring you good news that will cause great joy for all the people. Today in the town of David a saviour has been born to you, he is the Messiah, the Lord. This will be a sign to you: you will find the baby wrapped in cloths and lying in a manger"
    " Suddenly a great company of the heavenly host appeared with the angle, praising God and saying, Glory to God in the highest and on Earth peace to those whom his favour rest"
    "So they hurried off and found Mary,Joseph and the baby who was lying in the manger. When they had seen him they spread the word concerning what had been told them about the child.
    the 8th day when time to circumcise named Jesus, the name the Angel had given him
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LUKE - BIRTH OF JESUS

Caesar Augustus issued a decree that a Venus should be taken of the entire Roman world.
*" Joseph went from the town of Nazareth in Galilee to Judea, to Bethlehem the town of David , because he belong to the town of David.

  • He went to register with Mary his wife who was expecting a child.
  • She gave birth to her firstborn, a son. She wrapped him in cloths and placed him in a manger, because there was no guest room available for them.
    And there were Shepherds living out in fields nearby, an Angel of the Lord appeared to the, and the glory of the Lord shone around them. " Do not be afraid. I bring you good news that will cause great joy for all the people. Today in the town of David a saviour has been born to you, he is the Messiah, the Lord. This will be a sign to you: you will find the baby wrapped in cloths and lying in a manger"
    " Suddenly a great company of the heavenly host appeared with the angle, praising God and saying, Glory to God in the highest and on Earth peace to those whom his favour rest"
    "So they hurried off and found Mary,Joseph and the baby who was lying in the manger. When they had seen him they spread the word concerning what had been told them about the child.
    the 8th day when time to circumcise named Jesus, the name the Angel had given him
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LUKE: COMING OF THE MAGI ( WISEMEN)

" After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea , during the time of King Herod, Magi from the East came to Jerusalem and asked "Where is the one who has been born King of the Jews" we saw a star when it rose and have come to worship him.

" When Herod heard this he was disturbed and all Jerusalem with him. He asked his people where the Messiah was to be born " In Bethleham in Judea " they replied. The prophet wrote"But you Bethlehem in the land of Judah, are by no means least among the rulers of Judah;for out of you will come a ruler who will shepherd my people Israel

"Herod ordered the Magi to Bethlehem to search for the child "so he could then go and worship the child .

  • After they had heard their King they went on their way, and the start they had seen when it rose went ahead of them until it stopped over the place the child was. "On coming to the house they saw the child with his Mother Mary, and they bowed down and worshipped him. They opened their treasures and presented him with gifts of Gold, Frankincense and myrrh. And having been warned in a dream not to go back to Herod , they returned to their country by another route"
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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE INCARNATION

MEANS GOD IN FLESH

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A PARABLE

  • Is a story or saying that compares the Kingdom of God with everyday human events
  • Sin is - Disobeying God and separating oneself from him
  • Repentance - Is sincere change of heart
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THE PRODIGAL SON / LOST SON PARABLE

SUMMARY:

  • Man had 2 sons - * Younger son asked whether he would have his property or inheritance now
    Younger son set off to distant land and spent everything on having a good time
    When famine struck he went to work looking after pigs
    Was extremely hungry and could have easily eaten pigs food, realised his Fathers servants were better off than he was.
    Decided to return home decided to say his Father " I have sinned against heaven (God) and against you"
    Before he reached home his Father saw him and rushed to meet him , heart filled with compassion
    Father told his servants to bring best robe, put sandals on his feet, kill the fatty end calf and prepare a feast.
    Father said they should rejoice that his dead son was now alive , he was lost and is found.
    Elder son angry told his Father he had never been given as party like this
    refused to go to the party
    Father tried to persuade elder son to join party, told him he had continually enjoyed everything he owned. Father said it was NOW appropriate to celebrate the return
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KEY IDEAS PRODIGAL SON

*This parable is aimed at the Pharisees who were critical of Jesus concern for outcasts.

  • The Parable is one of a series about the "LOST" people of Israel (Those who were considered to be sinners and who were rejected according to Jewish Law and how there is a disproportionate and undeserving rejoicing in heaven when one sinner repents
    ELDER SON : Represents Pharisees , or those who have kept to the law but unable to be generous to those who have fallen short of its demands.
    YOUNGER SON ; REPRESENTS OUTSCASTS AND SINNERS OF SOCIETY
    EATING WITH PIGS: Pigs considered unclean in Jewish law so this is an important idea. The younger son had reached an emotional and religious low, he was now TRULY outcast from society
    THE FATHER: represents God and his generosity, love and forgiveness for all sinners
    THE FATHERS GENEROSITY: is contrasted to the elder sons lack of compassion
    THE FEAST: Symbolises JOY in the Kingdom of God for all especially those who repent.
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THE GOOD SAMARITAN - PARABLE

SUMMARY:
*A lawyer asked Jesus "Teacher what must I do to inherit eternal life?"
*Jesus asked him what's the law said
*Lawyer answered that he should love God and Love thy neighbour as himself
*The Lawyer asked Jesus :Who is my Neighbour" - Jesus answers with a parable:
+A Man was traveling from Jerusalem to Jerico
+Robbers attacked him, beat him up and left him for dead
+A Priest saw the man but crossed to the other side of the road to avaoid him

  • A Levite saw the man and crossed to the other side of the road
    A Samaritan saw him and taking polity treated and bandaged his wounds
    He took him to an inn and looked after him
    The next day he gave the innkeeper money to take care of the man and promised to reimburse home for any further expenses .
    Jesus asked the Lawyer who was the neighbour to the man
    The lawyer answered the one who had mercy on him
    Jesus told him to go and act the same way
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KEY IDEAS GOOD SAMARITAN

*The traditional answer to "Who is my Neighbour" would be "other Jews"
*The point of the parable illustrates the prejudices people have about who is worthy to be considered a neighbour

*In Jewish Law a dead body and blood were considered religiously unclean
*If the Priest was on the way to the temple he could not touch the body otherwise he would not be allowed in the temple
*A Levite was an assistant at the temple, like the Priest if he had touched the body he would be unclean

  • Neither man made any effort to find out whether the man was dead or not
    The Samaritans were despised by the Jewsand treated as racially and socially inferior ; this dated back to the fall of Samaria in 722BC when it was judged that they had rejected Gods covenant .
    The Samaritan acted generously and mercifully and out of Love, which would have been an enormous surprise to Jesus' listeners. He fulfilled the essence of the Jewish Law
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PALM SUNDAY

MATTHEW 21
1: " as they approached Jerusalem and came to Bethpage on the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent 2 disciples, saying to them, " Go to the village ahead of you, and at once you will find a donkey tied there, with her Colt by her. Untie them and bring them to me. If anyone says anything to you say that the Lord needs them, and he will send them right away"

2: This took place to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet; "say to the Daughter of Zion, "See your King comes to you, gentle and riding on a donkey and on a Colt ,the foal of a donkey."

3: The disciples went and did this as Jesus had instructed. They brought the donkey and the Colt and laid their cloaks on them for Jesus to sit on. A very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road, while others cute branches from the trees and spread them on the road. The crowds went ahead of him and those that followed shouted
"Hosanna to the son of David! "Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord" Hosanna in the highest heaven".
4: "When Jesus entered Jerusalem the whole city was stirred and asked "who is this?"
The crowds answered "This is Jesus the prophet from Nazareth in Galilee"

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CRUXIFICTION PART 1 TRIED AND CONVICTED

Gospels tell us Jesus was arrested late on Thursday Night and by the middle of the following day was already dead. The Sabbath day started at sunset on the Friday and no Jewish criminal was allowed to be left hanging on a cross after that time . In the short time between his arrest and execution he was questioned by both Jewish and Roman Authorities.

  • Taken to Sanhedrin ( Jewish) council bout only count he could be found guilty was Blaspehmy, when asked if he was the son of God replied YES. Blasphemy was a crime punishable by death in Jewish law.
    Sent to Pontius Pilate Roman Governor to be charged with telling people not to pay their taxes and claiming to be leader of the Jews ( threat to Roman authority).
    Pilot sent him to Herod (Governorof Galilee where Jesus came from) who could find no charge .
  • Custom at Passover to release a prisoner and wanted to release Jesus.
  • The people wanted Barrabas released ( a murderer who I had led several revolts)
    Chief Priests stirred the crowd to release Barrabas
  • Pilate handed Jesus to the army for execution .
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CRUXIFICTION PART 2

  • Soldiers led Jesus to Praetorium , dressed him in a purple robe
    Put a crown of thorns on his head
    Called out "hail, King of the Jews"
    Struck him and spat on him
    Pretended to worship him,put his own clothes back on him and led him to be crucified.
    Gospels tell us Jesus had been flogged so hard he could not carry his cross so Simon of Cyrene was forced to carry Jesus cross .
  • At Golgotha Jesus crucified with 2 robbers
    Gospels tell us jesus was nailed to the cross at 9am until 3pm ( 6 hours)
    Soldier offered sponge soaked in drugged wine to lessen the pain but he refused it
    Above Jesus head on the cross read King of the Jews In 3 languages
    At noon land plunged into darkness
    At 3pm Jesus cried out " My God,My God why have you forsaken me?
    Jesus died with a loud cry
    A Roman soldier thrust a spear in his side to make sure he was dead
    Quotes from the cross " Father forgive them for they know not what they are doing"
    "father into your hands I commend my spirit"
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CRUXIFICTION PART 3 : THE BURIAL

  • It was the day the Sabbath was being prepared
  • Joseph of Arimathea a member of the Sanhedrin who had condemned Jesus asked Pilate for Jesus' body.
    I Was given Jesus's body wrapped in linen
    Placed it in a rock tomb & rolled stone across the entrance ( showed respect) ** Important as it shows Jesus was dead and couldn't have revived and walked out. The resurrection therefore is the "Transformation" of Jesus' body
    Mary Magdalene and Mary Mother of Joseph saw where he was buried*** I've therefore the body was not stolen or mislaid

** From A Christian point of View his death was a sacrifice for human sin.His death was an offering to God . The darkness at noon symbolises the sin.

**Pilate may have considered that if Jesus was King of the Jews then this was treason against Ceasar , the punishment for treason was death.

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THE RESURRECTION

Most Christians believe 3 days after death Jesus was brought back to life by God.The Gospels tell us after appearing several times to his disciples Jesus disappeared from Earth altogether and was taken to heaven.
Resurrection : Rising to new Life from the dead
Son of God : Jesus' unique relationship with God

  • On the first day of the week Mary Magdalene saw the stone had been removed.
    Told Simon Peter and beloved disciple who found only neatly arranged linen cloths
    Mary Magdalene stood weeping by tomb & saw 2 angles standing where Jesus had lain. Turned around and saw Jesus but did not recognise him - thought he was the gardener.
    Jesus calls her Mary then she recognises him
    Tells disciples
    Jesius appears to disciples as they are eating, shows them CRUXIFICTION marks, breathed on them and they received the Holy Spirit.
    Jesus says : Those who believe in me without seeing are also blessed"
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RESURRECTION KEY IDEAS

*Resurrection me and Jesus brought back to life in a spiritual body (Not Ghost)
*Women had a key role in resurrection story , shows revolutionary teaching of Jesus because in Judaism women could not teach or become disciples .
*Mary Magdalene had a previously sinful life

  • Mary Magdalene could not touch Jesus when she saw him because she had to believe in the resurrection, ie no physical body
    Jesus breathed the Holy Spirit over the disciples, same as God had breathed his spirit into Adam to give him life - meaning the disciples had been given a new spiritual life
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