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Rousseau (1712 - 1778)

Rousseau (1712 - 1778)

  • influenced by Plato
  • children are born innocent - challenged medieval beliefs that children are born bad and need discipline to be good
  • should be protected from external influences until adolescence
  • education should harmonise with nature
  • learn through senses

infancy - first contact with environment, learn to respond with body5-12 - use senses to explore environment and start to learnadolescence - children learn science by observing what happens in nature

  • replacing this education with books teaches the child not to reason for himself but reply upon the reason of others
  • should be joyful
  • natural growth and development, active involvement in education, individuality
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Pestalozzi (1746 - 1827)

Pestalozzi (1746 - 1827)

  • advocated education of poor and emphasised teching methods designed to strengthen the student's own abilities
  • should observe children closely - feelings and sympathy are important
  • educate whole person - head, heart and hand to reach equilibrium
  • child is a seed - need to be nurtured, not directed
  • developed educational institutes for poor children
  • integrated curriculum that would develop the whole child
  • develop through natural state and moral state
  • importance of mother
  • children should learn through activity, saw education as social justice, improvement of social conditions, loving and emotionally secure environment
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Froebel (1782 - 1852)

Froebel (1782 - 1852)

  • influenced by Pestalozzi
  • father of kindergarten
  • most natural child activity is play
  • whole child
  • natural curiosity
  • gifts - actual physical appearance and hidden symbolic meaning, allow children to explore schemas e.g. sticks, cubes, bowls
  • occupations e.g. stories, talking, nature walks, gardening
  • play is highest phase of development - should be structured but allow children to make choices
  • children instruct and educate themselves
  • learning should involve first hand experiences and be child-centred
  • outdoors-indoors easy to move between
  • role of adults - foster play, plan and facilitate, enter play but not intervene, support the child, observe
  • develop from within - self active and free while connecting with the whole of the universe
  • senses are the origins of the mind
  • classroom as a social continuation of the ideal family
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Steiner (1861 - 1925)

Steiner (1861-1925)

  • Waldorf schools began in 1919
  • education of a child should be a combination of spiritual, emotional, physical and intellectual aspects
  • aesthetic environment in school that connects with the universe
  • care for the environment and nourishment of the senses
  • creative, artistic experiences through domestic and artistic activities
  • child-initiated free play
  • development of healthy will activity
  • protection of gratitude, reverance and wonder
  • rhythm, repetition and routine
  • child at centre
  • develop in 3 stages;
  • 0-7 - preoccupied with themselves
  • 7-14 - affective stage based on emotions
  • 14-20 - cognitive stage or intellect
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Steiner (1861 - 1925) Continued

Steiner (1861 - 1925) Continued

  • environment should be simple using natural wood and good architecture, clean and simple, beautiful, calming colours, soft material diffusing light at window, toys made out of natural materials
  • a nourshing environment inside and outside engages the senses
  • wanted to connect inwardness of man to inwardness of universe
  • play - practical, daily life activities (baking bread, planting), artistic activities (singing, drama, musical instruments), imaginative and creative play (symbolic, pretend, socio-dramatic), additional activities (language, movement activities)
  • teacher - central importance, role model
  • teacher must display competence in music, art, storytelling and languages - thinker, poet, artisti, scientist, musician, environmentalist
  • stay with same class from reception to year 6 - after age 8 some specialist teachers are used for particular subjects
  • relationships are of central importance
  • legacy: 893 schools in 32 countries
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Montessori (1870 - 1952)

Montessori (1870 - 1952)

  • hospital work on nervous disorders, intellectual disorders
  • set up on school in Rome - 'casa dei bambini'
  • in a Montessori classroom children can achieve self-discipline and freedom for their own development when provided with the appropriate environment and materials to explore - should have a choice of what and how to do things
  • children deserve respect, superior to adults due to innocence and possibilities of their future
  • child-centred
  • freedom of choice, of repetition
  • respect - self-discipline >> self-motivation
  • independence, curioisity, whole child
  • environment should have structure and order, no distractions, encourages repetition
  • equipment is authentic and child-sized, natural material, authentic objects, student-created, accessibility, asthetically pleasing, community life, sense of ownership, sharing and mixed ages
  • Montessori materials are meaningful to the child, progress from simple to complex, prepare for future learning, begin as conrete graduate to aspect, teach only one concept at a time
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Montessori (1870 - 1952) Continued

Montessori (1870 - 1952) Continued

  • materials divided into; practical life (pouring, sorting, scrubbing), academic (language, writing, maths), sensorial (learning through senses), cultural/artistic (our world, science, history)
  • 4 main developmental stages (sensitive periods); realise children learn differently at different ages; infancy (birth-6 years) - based on senses, absorbent mind, age 3 high level of physical and biologial independence; childhood (6-12 years) - mental independence, learn about the world, peak at 9 yrs; adolescence (12-18 years) - social independence, development of social policy; maturity (18-24 years) - spiritual and moral independence
  • role of teacher - make environment educationally interesting and safe, decide on activities and layout, help child develop abilities, observe analyse and provide materials and activities approprite for children, communicate regularly with parents
  • role of parent - important role, mother has unique bond with child
  • play - work of the child, should be structured, purpose is to learn, shouldn't be interrupted, finish when children feel ready, develops concentration and forms personality, didn't consider free play
  • criticisms - encouraged to work individually and not in small groups, lot of structure, no free play, limits on choice and make believe/pretend play - Montessori didn't see purpose
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Isaacs (1885 - 1948)

Isaacs (1885 - 1948)

  • pioneered the use of observations
  • parents are main educators of their children
  • believed that institutionalised care before 7 years was a danger
  • believed in promoting children's emotions and feelings
  • emphasised importance of nursery education - pushed compulsory education - viewed nursery as extension of home, but not a substitute
  • thought role of play promoted intellectual growth
  • valued play as gave children freedom to think, feel and relate to others - based on observations at her own school
  • indoor/outdoor space should be richly resourced
  • child needs to learn to solve their own problems through exploring, experimenting and play
  • environment needs to be generous in warmth of feeling and opportunity for activity - child needs to feel secure
  • play helps development, promotes confidence
  • taught us to view children holistically, listen to the talk to children and watch what they do as we can view things as they view them
  • teacher - love, sympathy, patience and natural insight, scientific understanding as well as mother wit and mother love
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McMillan Sisters - Margaret McMillan (1860 - 1931)

McMillan Sisters - Margaret McMillan (1860 - 1931), Rachel McMillan (1859 - 1917)

  • worked with poor
  • every child is a person in his/her own right, children of God, right to live and fulfil potential
  • children need to be nurtured - senses (intellect), health (wellbeing), love and joy (kindness)
  • fairness and social justice, sense of beauty, nature and simplicity
  • observing children carefully like Isaacs
  • outside environment - all activities outdoors, animals, nature, open air nurseries, bathrooms outdoors, best environment for physical wellbeing
  • play - develops whole child, learn through senses, based on experiences and interests, free play, purposeful, responsibility, role-play/imitative/fantasy, problem solving, child initiated
  • up to the age of 5, children need a sleep during school hours and opportunities for repose
  • role of adult - carer, nurturer, supportive, provide stimulating environment, play companion, observer and recorder of development, facilitator of learning, know when to and when not to intervene, trainer and role model
  • legacy - free school meals, importance of good food for wellbeing, medical inspections/clinics, importance of early years, specialist training of teachers, open air nurseries, involvement of parents, nurseries as centre of communities
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