Short Summary of the Book
Romeo and Juliet
- boy (Romeo) & girl (Juliet) fall in love.
- come from families that hate each other - not allowed to marry.
- so much in love that they marry in secret instead.
- before wedding night, Romeo kill Juliet's cousin in duel & in morning forced to leave her.
- if he ever returns to city, will be put to death.
- Juliet then told she has to marry Paris, who has been chosen by her parents.
- parents do not know she is already married.
- she refuses, then agrees as she plans to fake her death & escape to be with Romeo.
- she takes sleeping potion & appears dead, so parents lay her in tomb.
- Romeo does not know about plan, visits grave, finds her 'dead' & kills himself.
- Juliet finally wakes up, finds Romeo dead & then kills herself.
'A pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life' - Prologue, line 6
'O brawling love, O loving hate' - Act 1, Scene 1, line 170
'My lips, two blushing pilgrims' - Act 1, Scene 5, line 94
'It is the east, and Juliet is the sun' - Act 2, Scene 2, line 3
'Deny thy father and refuse thy name' - Act 2, Scene 2, line 34
'With love's light wings did I o'erperch these walls' - Act 2, Scene 2, line 66
'A plague a'both houses!' - Act 3, Scene 1, line 86
'Then I defy you, stars' - Act 5, Scene 1. line 24
Role of Women
- possessions, financially dependent on fathers, had to be obedient.
- when married, handed over to rule of husband.
- not desirable for women to remarry at any age.
- encouraged to marry someone of similar social class.
- father would negotiate marriage contract for her - arranged marriage.
- secret marriages (as in Romeo & Juliet) seen as shocking - against law.
- encouraged to love husband/wife.
- loving too much seen as illness.
- unrequited love (one-sided) or desire - seen as disease, sometimes called lovesickness (Romeo felt this at beginning of play).
- Ideal marriage - companionship & compatibility more important than passion/romance.
- set of rules & expectations about way lovers should behave.
- woman must reject his advances to preserve honour & good name.
- coldness inflames his passion, consumed with sadness - makes up verses about his love.
- sonnets - often used to address subject of love in conflict (like prologue in Romeo & Juliet).
- young man falls in love at first sight, woman resists love to extend courtship & test his devotion.
- results in lover becoming melancholy (sad), avoiding friends & family.
- uses poetry to express feelings of rejection.
Chain of being
- believed in the position of ladder descending from God - angel, king, man & woman.
- man higher than woman on hierarchical chain of being.
- belief of Fall of Man - Adam allowed love for Eve to overrule judgement & obedience to God.
- dangerous to ket reason be dominated by passion, too uncontrollably emotional - heading for fall.
The Seven Deadly Sins
- pride, envy, gluttony (greed for food), lechery (lust), avarice (greed for money), wrath (anger) & sloth (laziness).
- believed to be of 'unsound mind' & proved victim had fallen into sin of despair.
- against God's will so seen as a criminal offence & sin.
- strong beliefs about God and so many people were religious.
Protagonist - leading/major character in play.
Sonnet - poem of 14 lines with number of rhyme schemes. Typically 10 syllables per line.
Hyperbole - exaggerated statements.
Patheic Fallacy - gives the environment & nature/inanimate objects human emotions/feelings.
Rhetorical Questions - question asked where an answer is not expected.
Soliloquy - speaking thoughts out loud.
Stichomythia - dialogue where characters speak alternate lines.
Oxymorons - contradictory terms.
Tragedy Genre - main character/s brought to ruin or experience great sorrow.
Syntax - arrangement of words & phrases to create well-formed sentences.
Lexis - words/language used. (lexical choice - individual words)
Foreshadowing - warning/indication of future events.
Figurative Language - words/expressions with a meaning different from literal interpretation.
Imagery - visually descriptive/figurative language.
Juxtaposition - two things being seen/placed close together with contrasting effect.
Monologue - long speech by one actor in play.
Personification - giving something non-human human characteristics.
Theme - subject/topic of text.
Tone - the mood. General character/attitude of a place or piece of writing.
Verbal Irony - when a character uses a statement with underlying meanings contrasting with its literal meanings.
Metaphor - figure of speech, word/phrase applied to object/action, not literally applicable.
Simile - figure of speech involving comparison of 1 thing with another of different kind, used to make description more vivid.
Repetition - repeating something said/written.
Dramatic Irony - full significance of character's words/actions is clear to audience/reader although unknown to character.
Iambic Pentameter - line of verse with five metrical feet, each consisting of one short (or unstressed) syllable followed by one long (or stressed) syllable. 10 syllables in total.
Rhyming Couplet - two lines of poetry that rhyme.