Role of Emotion

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Mark Scheme


·         Emotion and effects on cognition (effects of depression, high arousal, information processing)

·         Flashbulb memory hypothesis (Conway, Neisser, McCloskey

·         Repression (Frued, Williams, Loftus)

·         Emotion and real life studies (weapon focus, PTSD)


·         Evolutionary context of arousal and memory and associated brain mechanisms

·         Scientific quality of evidence (difficulty of testing repression)

·         Evaluation of competing hypothesis

·         Evaluation of lab studies

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Flashbulb Memories - Enhanced

·         Enduring, vivid imprint of an important incident

·         Brain and Kulik (1977) people remember assassinations specific to their ethnicity, this supports the theory of it having to have personal relevance

·         Neisser (1982) repeated rehearsal means they are significant

·         Conway et al (1994) 86% of UK participants remember details of Margaret Thatcher’s resignation, only 29% of other participants did

·         Sheingold and Terry (1982) good detail of births of siblings – real or someone told them

·         Wright (1993) Hillborough disaster,5 months after memories were vague and both personal and media bias influenced

·         Inconclusive and lacks reliability 

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Repression – Impaired

·         Unconscious mechanism (Freud) protecting the consciour

·         Can affect conscious processes i.e anxiety

·         Little Hans example

·         Williams (1994) sexually assaulted women, 38% did not remember the abuse, 16% did not previously recall

·         Loftus and Pickrell (1995) lost in the mall, 20%

·         False memory implantation

·         Can be found through therapies 

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Depression – Impaired

·         Mood disorder, lack of energy, self worth and self guilt

·         Negative mood makes biases meaning we recall negative memories

·         Biochemical differences makes depressed people’s memories less effective – reduced hippocampus size

·         Lyketsos (2001) depression means low motivation and reduced awareness, meaning people remember less as they don’t pay attention to it

·         Antikanen et al (2001) 6 months after treatment, memory in depressed patients was better

·         Eich et al (1994) sad and sad word pairs were easier to recall

·         Shows mood dependent memory

·         High cortisol levels

·         Encoding and recall issues, how can we separate

·         Issues in research

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