Case study of a granite area- Dartmoor
- Granite is a hard rock so takes a long time to erode. It therefore forms upland areas with rolling hills.
- It is largely impermeable so water will not pass through it easily. This may lead to marshy areas.
- As it is high, cool and windy the vegetation grows slowly and the soils are thin.
- There are isolated trees but it is mainly grassland.
- There will be some steep sided valleys and mainly rounded hills, many with rocky outcrops and Tors on the top
1 of 8
Uses of chalk and clay case study - London Aquifer
- The rocks under London form a basin called a syncline (the lower arc of the fold in fold mountains)
- Water soaks into the chalk where it is exposed on either side of London and then percolates through the chalk to form a giant underground reservoir called an aquifer. This water provides for London
- It is managed by the Environmental agency to ensure it is used sustainably. In 1960s industrial use caused the water table to drop to 88m below sea level resulting in sea water contamination.
- Careful management has allowed levels to rise by 3m a year since 1990s.
2 of 8
Case study - Hope Quarry, Castleton (1)
- Limestone has been quarried since Roman times in the Peak District
- Used for building stone, cement, lime (farming) and aggregate (crushed stone for road building and construction industry)
- 12 quarries in Peak District (1.5mntonnes in 1951 to 7.8mn tonnes in 2001)
- Outskirts of Castleton on the Peak District National Park
- Supplied 2mn tonnes of limestone a year to nearby Hope Cement Works (opened in 1929)
- The Cement Works is owned by the Lafarge Group and employs 182 locals. This benefits the local economy as the workers support nearby shops and services- MULTIPLIER EFFECT.
- Quarry has reserves for another 35 years.
3 of 8
Case study- Hope Quarry (2)
Quarrying and the environment:
- The Peak District National Park has a responsibility to strike a balance between the conservational needs of the environment and the economic and social needs of the area.
- Many measures have been put in place to reduce the impact of the quarry on the landscape:
- Landscaping and tree planting have reduced the visual impact of the quarry
- Efforts made to reduce the dust
- £15mn spent to improve transport. Rail is used instead of lorries. One train is equivalent to 57 lorries
- Hope Cement produces 1mn tonnes of carbon dioxide a year but in 2003 they planted 7,000 trees to off-set this.
- One old quarry area is now a wetland reserve.
4 of 8
How can quarries be restored?
- Quarry restoration- restoring or improving the environmental quality of a quarry, either during its operation or afterwards. This is expected of quarrying companies.
- Quarries have a visual impact, pollute rivers, aquifers, destroy habitats when trees and vegetation are removed.
- Restoration can occur while the quarry is still being worked.
- Exhausted quarries can be used for farmland (by having topsoil replaced), can use the undulating land for motocross and mountain biking. Waste tips can be used for dry ski slopes. Quarries can contain lakes which is ideal for wildlife reserves, fishing or water sports.
5 of 8
Restoration during extraction case study- Drayton
- Drayton Sand and Gravel Quarries are located near Chichester in West Sussex.
- There are two quarries- Drayton North and Drayton South
- Drayton North has been worked for some time now and is being extended to include some of Drayton South.
- Even before extension restoration had begun. Hedgerows were planted creating an avenue of oak trees between the two sites.
- Much of the site is waterlogged, it will be worked to deepen the existing lake.
- When quarrying is complete, an extensive lake covering 15ha will have been created. It will have reed beds, deep and shallow areas to provide for a range of habitats. Edges of the lake will be grassland and woods. Nesting boxes will be sited to encourage birds into the area. They expect increased biodiversity.
6 of 8
Restoration after extraction- Hollow Banks quarry
- Hollow Banks Quarry is a 20ha quarry near Catterick, North Yorkshire where sand and gravel were extracted between 1999 and 2003. After it closed the company, Tarmac Ltd restored it:
- The site was contoured to create a gently undulating landscape with small ponds bordered by grass and woodland
- After soil was added, it was loosened and had stones removed. It was then divided into areas with grass for pasture and other areas as woodland.
- They planted a variety of plants and trees to increase habitats and biodiversity
- Woodland areas were fenced to prevent damage by other animals
- Over 20,000 trees and shrubs raised locally were planted during 2004 and 2005
- Aquatic plants have been planted at the margins of the ponds
- Footpaths have been established to provide public access to the woods and ponds.
7 of 8
Case study of a limestone area- Malham Cove, North
- Tourists visit the area for walking, camping, climbing, pot-holing, caving, educational visits and for the distinctive scenery.
- Over 8 million visitors to north Yorkshire provide employment and an important boost to the local economy, where farming has become less profitable.
- It has multiplier effect and widens the economic base
- 'Honeypot' site. become congested with cars and tourists, causing conflict with the local people.
- Ramblers can cause conflict with farmers - eg by dropping litter and leaving gates open.
- Some tourists buy second homes, pushing up property prices to the point where local people can't afford them.
- Environmental damage to frequently used footpaths.
8 of 8