Rock Landscapes

HideShow resource information

GRANITE

  • igneous, intrusive.
  • vertical joints from where granite cooled and contracted (vertical) and pressure from overlying rocks (horizontal)

FORMATION OF A GRANITE TOR

  • sediment builds on top of granite but is eroded.
  • closely spaced joints weathers more quickly than widely splaced.
  • tor is left
  • mass movement moves weathered rock onto ground called scree.
  • continuous process

USES

  • sheep farming
  • quarrying
  • prison
  • tourism
  • army training
  • reservoirs

also for paint, china, medicine, beauty products, roads, gravestones, work tops, fireplaces

1 of 3

chalk and clay

sedimentary, exposed at slight angle because rocks folded during teconic activity.

ESCARPMENTS AND VALES

  • horizontal layers are tilted diagonally by tectonic movements
  • chalk = resistant
  • clay = soft
  • clay eroded more quickly leaving chalk escarpments (hills) - dip slope, scarp slope, vale
  • water flows through chalk and emerges where permeable chalk meets impermeable clay. - spring line.
  • linear settlements used to occur near the spring line
  • dry valley formed - dont have a river flowing through because the water is underground

USES of CHALK

  • farming - sheep on scarp, crops on dip
  • quarrying
  • aquifers

as well as cement and flint for building

USES of CLAY

  • dairy farming
  • cement works

as well as pottery, bricks and roof tiles

2 of 3

limestone

LIMESTONE PAVEMENTweathering enlarges joints to form deep narrow grooves called GRYKES. Blocks between are called CLINTS.

SWALLOW HOLE

when river reaches limestone it starts to disappear down a swallow hole/sink

UNDERGROUND CAVE

water flowing below ground dissolves limestone forming underground caves/caverns. Caves enlarged by roof collapse.

STALAGMITES/STALACTITES/PILLAR

  • water seeps through limestone which contains dissolved minerals.
  • when water drips into cavern the mineral solidifies and bulds up over time
  • stalaCtites (ceiling)
  • stalagmites (floor)
  • where stalactites and stalagmites join is called a pillar

RESURGENT RIVERS

rivers pop out at the surface when limestone is on top of impermeable rock.

3 of 3

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Rock landscapes and processes resources »