RM - Interviews

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  • Created by: Muy
  • Created on: 21-04-13 02:21

Types of interview

Structured interviews have standardised questions and wording

Unstructured interviews are open ended as the interviewer can vary questions and wording

Semi structured interviews have same set of questions but the interviewer can include additional questions

Group interviews are undstructured, as groups discuss topics

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Structured interviews

They are quick and cheap to administer to large numbers

Suitable for gathering factual info e.g. religion

Close ended questions w/ pre coded answers = easily quantifiable 

Trainings interviewers are straightforward

Response rates exceed questionnaires

They're inflexible restricting follow ups

Are snapshots ...

ETHICAL - topics in SIs are generally about less sensitive topics

However interviewees can feel pressured to answer

Researchers should gain interviewees informed consent + guarentee confendentiality

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Issues

Structured interviews enable positivists to test hypothesis by revealing correlations 

SIs are standardised measuring instrument, its reliable as interviewees ask the exact same questions

SIs are quick and cheap enabling large numbers to be conducted, this allows positivists to make generalisations

Interpretivists critcised SIs lack of validity - 

Interviewers can't explain/clarify questions, close ended questions forces the interviewees to choose from limited pre set answers (pre coded)...

Interviewees may lie/exagerrate and the reseacher has decided whats important which imposes the researchers ideas

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Feminist criticisms

Relationships between interviewer & interviewee relflects exploitative nature of patriarchal gender relationships 

Oakley argues positivists 'masculine' approach value objectivity, regarding science superior to interests of the people it researches

Graham claims SIs distort womens experiences as they impose the researchers categories on woahmen

SOCIAL INTERACTIONS can undermind validity

Status difference between interviewer/interviewees may affect honesty

Cultural differences could lead to misunderstandings over meanings of words

Social desirability - interviewees may proviede false answers to make em seem more interesting

Interviewer may ask leading questions, and influnce answers through tone of voice, nonetheless interaction is reduces due to fixed questions

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Unstructured interviews

Have no standardised format providing the interviewer freedom, this means rich and detailed qualitative data

Informality allows rapport to develop, the interviewee is likelier to open up (e.g. sensitive topics)

Training needs to be thorough and require good interpersonal skills to establish rapport

Longer than Sis meaning smaller sample size

Large amounts of data produces, making analysis cand catgorisation of data harder

They are flexible, new hypothesis can be developed/tested as they arise (valid data too as the interviewer/interviewee can clarify meanings)

Useful for unexplored subjects as they are open ended and exploratory

Opportunities for interviewee to speak about what they consider important (no pre set Qs)

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Issues w/ UIs

Understanding comes through INVOLVEMENT, rapport enables researcher to see the world through the interviewees eyes

Grounded theory - interpretivists reject positivist idea that research begins with a fixed hypothesis, we should approach the research with an open mind instead

Interviewees can raise issues and bring fresh insights, interviewers probing merely helps focus interviewees thoughts

Open ended questions permit interviewees to express themselves in their own words and reveal their true meanings

Positivists -

UIs arent reliable as they aren't standardised measuring instrument, quantification is impossible due to open ended Qs

Sample sizes lack representativeness so valid generalisations are harder, and interaction between interviewer/interviewee undermines validity

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