Rivers

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Factors affecting the river basin

Soil and rock type

  • Non permable rock will not allow water through and therefore the peak discharge will increase
  • Some soil will make inflitration alot slower

Weather and climate

  • A heavy storm will lead to and increase in river discharge
  • A winter storm will produce snow which will have a long time before melting increasing the lag time.

Vegetation cover

  • If a area has a high amount of trees ect precipitation will be interrupted and therefore not as much will fall.

Human Activity

  • Human surfaces such as tarmac will increase the surface run off
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Incised Meanders

  • Occur when the river's base level has fallen
  • Giving it large amounts of vertical erosion
  • Allowing it to downcut
  • Little oppotunity for lateral erosion - meaning they are symetrical
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Pingos

  • Dome shaped, 500m in diameter and 50m high
  • At the core is a ice lens
  • Surface layer is vegetation and soil
  • Open system: Water that forms the ice lens from outside
  • Closed system: Water to form the ice lens comes from within the system
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