role of antioxidants - risks of CVD
during reactions in the body unstable radicals result when an atom has an unpaired electron.
radicals are highly reactive and can dmage cell components including enzymes and genetic material.
some vitamins including vitamin-C and vitamin-E can protect against radical damage. they provide hydrogen atoms and stabilise the radical by pairing up with its unpaired electron.
studies have found that a high level of antioxidants can protect against heart disease.
affects of salt- risks of CVD
for a healthy functioning body we need some salt but too much can have bad affects.
A high salt diet causes kidneys to retain water, so higher fluid levels in the blood result in higher blood pressure which is a risk associated with CVD.
stress- risks of CVD
there is evidence that high levels of stress can increase your risk of CVD.
during stress adreniline is released causing artiries and artirioles to constrict, resulting in raised blood pressure.
alcohol- risks of CVD
Alcohol increases the risk of heart disease as it can raise blood pressure, cause obesity and causes irregular heartbeats.
Excess alcohol can lead to direct tissue damage, to the liver, brain and heart. Which leads to an increased risk of CVD.
the liver processes carbohydrates, fats and proteins. it also destroys and removes alcohol from the body.
damage to the liver from alcoholimpairs the ability to remove glucose and lipids from the blood.
in the liver the alcohol is coverted into ethanol. some of this ethanol may end up as very LDL's which increases the risk of CVD.
However some studies have shown the minute amounts of alcohol can have positive affects due to the correlation with higher HDL levels in the blood.