- Created by: Molly1999
- Created on: 29-03-17 10:15
Right Realists argue that crime is...
The result of a culture that emphasises values such as immediate gratification and low self-control.
The key difference between Left and Right Realism?
Right Realists do not claim that poverty / relative deprivation can be a cause of crime, but Left Realists would do.
What is the Broken Windows theory?
The idea that if a house had broken windows, then others are more likely to vandalise the house than they would if the windows were not broken. Essentially, signs of disorder will cause even more disorder.
Kelling, NYC 1971 study
Researchers concluded that to stop the graffitti, there had to be a 'zero tollerance' policy implemented by the police.
As a result, the police saw that some petty crime, and serious crime rates fall significantly.
It is argued that the police intervention acted as a detterant for people to commit crime.
What is the Zero Tolerance policy?
This consisted of the police arresting and punishing anu anti-social behaviour - not just graffitti.
Zimbardo's car experiment (to test the Broken Wind
He abandonned two cars.
One in an urban area (in the Bronx).
Another in a hiking area (in California).
Both cars were left with the bonnett open.
The car in the Bronx was stripped of anything valuable and destroyed within 3 days.
The car in California however, had not been touched for a week. So Zimbardo smashed it with a hammer and within 4 hours children were playing with the car.
Evaluation of the Broken Windows theory
The police's 'zero-tollerance' policy meant that they had 'free reign' to discriminate against minority groups e.g. African Americans.
Too focused on petty crime, rather than more serious / harmful crimes e.g. white collar crime.
Totally ignores non-utiliterian crimes.
Over emphasises the disorder of the neighbourhoods, rather than focusing on the underlying causes of crime e.g. a lack of investment into community cohesion.
Cornish and Clarke - What is the Rational Choice t
Before individuals commit a crime, they argue that the individuals ask weigh up the pros and cons of committing the crime.
e.g. 'which house is the best target?' 'do the neighbours watch out for each other's property?'
This therefore, represents the idea of criminals thinking rationally before acting criminally.
There are however, background factors that could effect individuals rational choice.
e.g. their socialisation, intelligence, personality.
They may also be effected by situational factors.
e.g. peer pressure, drug dependancy, vunerability of the target.
Give two examples of situational crime prevention
harden targets, extend guardianship, conceal targets.
controlled access to facillities, assist natural surveillance, remove targets.
screen exits, reduce anonymity, identify property.
control tools and weapons, strengthen formal surveillance, disrupt markets.
deflect offenders, utilise place managers, deny benefits.
How does Rational Choice theory, lead to SCP?
SCP are measures specifically designed to make crime more difficult, more risky, and less rewarding.
Things like neighbourhood watch, CCTV, better streetscape, more streetlights and security guards have been used recently to try and prevent crime.
What is Displacement theory?
Remaining opportunity for crime or trying to prevent crime by changing the situation that creates it, doesn't actually prevent crime, but moves it around.
What are the 5 different areas of displacement in
Geographical displacement - crime can be moved from one location to another.
Temporal displacement - crime can be moved from one time to another.
Target misplacement - crime can be directed away from one target to another.
Tactical misplacement - one method of committing crime can be substituted for another.
Crime type misplacement - one kind of crime can be substituted for another.
Felson and Clarke - Positive effects of displaceme
A crime is displaced to a less serious type of crime, with greater risk, lower rewards or causes less serious damage.
Felson and Clarke - Neutral effects of displacemen
A crime is displaced to one of the same seriousness, of the same risk, rewards and damage.
Felson and Clarke - even-handed effects of displac
Prevention is concentrated on those who are repeatedly victimised in order to achieve a more equitable distribution of crime.
Felson and Clarke - Negative effects of displaceme
A crime is displaced to a more serious crime, with greater rewards or greater social cost.
Environmental Criminology - Routine Activity Theor
Developed by Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson.
Routine Activity Theory is a sub-field of crime opportunity theory that looks at situations of crime.
Crime is somewhat unaffected by social causes such as poverty, inequality and unemployment.
To commit a crime, the following 3 things have to be in place:
A target (object, person, place)
Absense of a capable guardian (police, security, CCTV, neighbourhood watch)
A likely offender (offenders point of view)
What are the key causes of crime according to Righ
Ease of opportunity
Broken Windows theory
What are the key solutions according to Right Real
More police officers on patrol at one time
AO3 of the Right Realist view
CCTV - do people really give informed consent
e.g. in schools, the students don't give consent, but there is CCTV around for the benefit of the students and teachers.
Displacement theory - even though CCTV cameras are being installed more regularly, people will commit crimes in areas without CCTV in place.
CCTV was adopted because it was politically popular, not because it was effective.
CCTV has little effect on crimes of passion / compulsion
e.g. alcohol abuse, violence, drug usage.
CCTV seems to only benefit the wealthy as it protects property.
CCTV was not able to prevent the 7/7 terror attacks in London.