What is right realism based on?
Right realism is based on the right wing view that committing criminal acts is a choice and criminals have made the rational choice to commit crimes.
The role of the government is not to elimiate the mythical root cause of crime but to punish the criminal.
humans are greedy, and if poor socialization occurs people will make the choice to commit crimes.
What is the mythical root cause of crime?
this is poverty or being marginalized.
right realists say there is no root cuase of crime people just make the active desicion.
Zero Tolerance Policies and Stop and Search?
JAMES Q WILSON.
developed zero tolerance policies because 'if small crimes go un punished they turn into larger crimes'. Zero tolerance policies are when any crime is considered a serious offence.
Within these policies came STOP AND SEARCH POLICIES, the police only needed resonable suspicion to stop and search somebody.
black young males are 27% more likely to be stopped and searched.
Positives and criticisms of zero tolerance policie
POSITIVE- They were productive for a short period of time
NEGATIVE- they cost too much as the police had to be everywhere,
NEGATIVE-it was a contributing factor to the brixton riots as the black communities and the police completely lost trust.
NEGATIVE- the lack of cohesion between the police and communities can still be seen today
Broken Window Theory?
WILSON AND KELLING.
high levels of crime occur where informal social control has broken down leaving anti-social deviant behaivour to go unpunished.
if low level antisocial behaivour is prevented then this does no escalate to serious crimes being committed.
the 'broken window' name comes from an analogy of an abandonded building, once one window has broken then all the windows are soon to get smashed.
Situational Crime Prevention
CLARKE- advocates policies and practices which make it difficult for people to commit crime. (links to new right as they say criminals make a rational choice)
the neighbourood watch scheme is active in Britain
NEWMAN- introduced the idea of a DEFENSIBLE SPACE the design of streets and houses could make them safer.
target hardening- anyone desgining a public place is legally bound to include CCTV.
Evaluation of crime prevention?
GARLAND- argues that crime prevetion limits the extent and impact of crime and ignores the underlying causes of crime.
CRIME DISPLACEMENT- crime will merely move to another community which hasnt increasted their target hardening.
EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMES- these involve the community, the police have to indentify which groups are more likley to commit crime then act on it with intervention techniques.