Revision of Organic Reactions

Reagents and conditions of organic chemical reactions


Reactions of Alkenes and Alkanes

Alkene to Alkane- H2, Platinum catalyst, Room Temperature and pressure.

Alkene to halogenoalkane- Conc H-X(aq), room temp.

Alkane to Halogenoalkane- Br2(g), high frequencey UV radiation.

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Reactions of Halogenoalkanes and nitriles

Halogenoalkane to amine- conc.NH3, heat in sealed vessel.

Halogenoalkane to primary alcohol- NaOH, reflux.

Halogenoalkane to nitrile- KCN, ethanol solvent, reflux.

Nitrile to carboxylic acid- H+/H20, reflux

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Reactions of alcohols and acyl chlorides

Primary alcohol to alkene- c.H2SO4, reflux.

Primary alcohol to halogenoalkane- Na---X and 50% H2SO4, reflux.

Primary alcohol to aldehyde- Heat and distil, H+/Potassium dichromate.

Primary alcohol to carboxylic acid- Reflux, H+/Potassium dichromate.

Secondary alcohol to ketone - Reflux, H+/Potassium dichromate.

Acyl chloride to secondary amide- R'---NH2, room temp.

Acyl chloride to primary amide- c.NH3, room temp, anhydrous.

Acyl chloride to ester- R'---OH, room temp, anhydrous.

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Reactions of esters, carboxylic acids and adehydes

Ester to carboxylic acid- reflux, weak acid or alkali. (if alkali used, product will be  a salt)

Carboxylic acid to acyl chloride- SCl2O

Aldehyde to primary alcohol- NaBH4, room temp.

Carboxylic acid to ester- R'---OH, c. H2SO4 catalyst.

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