revision notes on unit 1 geog

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cocoa-cola case study india can be used in water c

-discrimination as white people were paid more than black people

-protests from INDIAN farmers as cocoa cola are using up their water supply, meaning they cant grow crops. They have a high technology plant which takes water from the aquifer which these farmers heavily rely on

-many people have found pesticides in their coke, which if from the farmers (not on purpose)

-they say any water they dont use they will clean and put back in water supply, however this is very expensive

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shrinking of the aral sea-russia

-water level decreased by 57cm a year

-10% of the sea is left-40m deep of water over the last 10 years has evaporated

CAUSES

-due to russia building dams on rivers which normally flow into the aral sea

-cotton crops were seen as more valuable than the 60 000 fishing jobs which have been lost

FACTS

-used to be the size of ireland

-was the 4th biggest lake in the world

EFFECTS

-salty dust blew into soil and contaminated fields,abondoned ships

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whats desertification

-process which by land is so badly damaged it turns into a desert and does not recover due to periods of drought

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the sahel desertification case study-sahara desert

CAUSES -increasing population putting a strain on the sahel -over grazing is causing deforestation. More people puts more pressure on the land due to more animals being needed. Increased temperatures from global warming has lead to more evaporation and less condensation meaning less rain

-constant use of land due to farmers, which weakens soil structure and makes it vunrable to wind and water erosion

-people using fire wood causes deforestation, these trees usually bind soil together

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tackling desertification?

AFFORESTATION-planting trees. Roots bind soil together and leaves provide shade and intercept water. Its cheap and long term

TERRACING-prevents rainfall from washing away top soil and nutrients, its cheap to build and only man power needed

MAGIC STONES- stones are placed along contours, top soil cant be washed away past the stones. Water infiltrates and increases yield by 50%. Cheap to build and only man power is needed.

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whats causing pollution in Dunbue euroupes largest

-sewage -over extraction -oil spill -fertilisers causing eutrophication -industry pollutants -toxic mud placed in it due to a collapsing wall, this contained alluminum causing the like to turn alkaline creating eutrophication and contaminated the water supply

WESTERN HUNGRY

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Why are developing countries more likely to have w

-rapid urbanisation which means more people live in towns than cities which means more raw sewage going into water supplies and causing diseases such as chlorea and eutrophication

-more secondary and primary which damage environment due to factory pollutants or damaging soil due to extracting raw materials and fertilisers

-developed countries have laws and monitor water supplies and levels

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HOOVER DAM USA-colorada river-provides water for L

WHY LAS VEGAS NEEDED IT? - its a desert -aquifers have dried out -40million toursits a year which need water for showers and drinks etc -toursits provide 370000 jobs

COST 49MILLION -supplies water to 8 million -provides 80 kw of electricity

probs :((((( birds and fish species have declined, water is running out in it. Many people retiring whcih means they need water due to weather for showers

How are LAS VEGAS trying to reduce water consumption?

-remove grass from gardens and make sale of grass seeds illegal -giving people vouchers to buy efficient toilets and fake plants

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three gorges dam china

Benfefits- 84kwh of electricity is made -provides a habititat for birds - creates an area to fish and do sailing -will prevent seasonal flooding -created 1200 jobs in design and structure

NEGATIVES- loss of biodiversity in area due to damage of habitats -1.4 million people have had to relocate -could damage the salt in the sea of japan which could affect climate -sheer wait of the dam could trigger earth quakes

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water issues

DEFORESTATION- amazon forest -reduces evapotranspiration -exposes soil to intense heat and makes ground impermable -loss of soil nutrients -no interception causing floods

RESEVOIR BUILDING-huntingdon grafham water- cause mosquitos to come and cause disease -vegetaton dorwned by lakes releases methane and co2 changing our climate

OVER ABSTRACTION-tu=iburty streams have dried up completely which damages plants and animals homes

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small scale soloutions

hand pumps- pumping water from ground, this is more efficenet than bucket and a rope. Also stops water contamination from dirty hands

RAIN BARRLES- rain goes through layers of sand and gravel which purify any impurties and purify the water

Lined wells- by digging up holes and finding ground water and pumping it out. This stops sewage getting into the water so its lined by concrete which reduces contamination

DISADS- people suffer from hiv and aids so are too ill too operate

Benefits- more sustainable than larger schemes, improved hygine, cheap and people dont have to walk long distances

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