Andes, South America (Part 1)
- 7000km long, 300km wide, 4000m average height.
- Longest range of fold mountains in the world.
- Bolivia: subsistence farmers (for self) grow wide range of crops.
- Terraces used to create flat land, retain water, limit downard movement of soil.
- Cash crops: soybeans, rice, and cotton.
- Llamas carry materials for irrigation into inaccessible areas (Machu Picchu relied on them).
- Andean countries are top 10 for tin, silver, nickel and gold.
- More than half of Peru's exports are from mining.
- Yanacocha gold mine is the biggest in the world.
- Gold bearing rock loosened with daily dynamite blasts, sprayed with cyanide and gold extracted.
- Nearby town of Cajamarca grown from 30,000 to 300,000 in 2010. Brings jobs but also crime.
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Andes, South America (Part 2)
- Steep slopes and narrow vallows can be more easily dammed.
- Relief encourages rapid flow of water.
- Melting snow in spring increases supply: disadvantage, variation.
- Mountain peaks, volcanoes, glaciers, lakes.
- Inca Trail: over 250 species of orchid.
- Archaeological and natural reserve- important both culturally and naturally.
- Finishes at the Lost City of the Incas, 45km trek, usually covered in 4 days.
- Best taken April-October, drier weather.
- Altitudes of 4200m reached.
- Closed for conservation every February, only 200 trekkers can start each day.
- Tickets must be bought at least a month in advance.
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Earthquake, Kobe (MEDC)
- 5:46am, January 17th 1995.
- Philippines beneath Eurasion, Nojima fault line.
- 7.2 Richter Scales.
- Tremors lasting 20 seconds.
- 6434 dead, 40 000 injured, 300 000 homeless.
- Gas mains ruptured, water pipes fractured, railway lines buckled.
- 2 million homes without electricity, 1 million people without water for 10 days.
- Fires, people huddled on streets, tented shelters in parks. Damage at over $220 billion.
- Friends and neighbours searched rubble, joined by servies when access was possible.
- Hospitals struggled to cope with influx, major retailers helped provide essentials.
- Railways 80% operational within a month.
- New buildings built further apart to prevent domino effect, reinforced with steel, rubber blocks under bridges to absorb shocks.
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Earthquake, Haiti (LEDC)
- 16:53, 12th of January 2010.
- Caribbean island, 7.0 magnitude.
- Epicentre just 15km SW of capital. Conservative: NA and Caribbean plate.
- Minor tremors continued up to 5.0.
- 230 000 dead, 1.5 million homeless, 180 000 homes destroyed.
- Homeless accommodated in over 1100 camps: limited services, water, sanitation.
- Cholera, storms, flooding.
- 5000 schools damaged or destroyed, $11.5 billion damage.
- Teams of medics, sniffer dogs, heat sensitive equipment.
- Aid in the form of water, food, supplies and shelter from USA and Dominican Republic.
- 3/4 of damaged buildings inspected and repaired.
- 20 000 people received cash or food for public work.
- World Bank pledged $100 million to support reconstruction and recovery.
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Volcano, Nyiragongo (LEDC)
- 17th January 2002.
- Democratic Republic of Congo, Africa.
- Plate movement along East African rift valley.
- Lava spilt downwards in three streams, 60kph, flowed across Goma airport.
- Split town in half, destroyed homes, water pipes, and roads. Explosions in fuel stores.
- 45 dead.
- Half a million fled from Goma to neighbouring Rwanda. Spent night on streets of Gisenyi.
- No electricity, shelter or clean water. Cholera. Many returned for fear of looting.
- Water had to be supplied in tankers.
- Aid agencies- Christian Aid and Oxfam- distributed food, medicine and blankets.
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Volcano, Mt St Helens (MEDC)
- Fold Mountains: Cascade Range in Washington State, USA.
- Composite volcano, destructive plate boundary, Juan de Fuca beneath NA.
- March 1980- earthquakes, ash, steam. Bulge grew on N flank.
- May 1980 at 08:32am- eruption.
- 5.2 earthquake caused landslide on NE side. Lateral blast. 390m summit removed.
- Glaciers melted and formed lahars, swept away trees and rock, blocked Spirit Lake.
- Destruction up to 27km N of crater.
- 57 dead- more if not a Sunday.
- Crops ruined, livelihoods of loggers gone, 15 000 acres destroyed.
- Power lines came down, damage estimated at over £800 million.
- Damage to forests= increased flooding.
- Washington issued a 15kmph speed limit, people ecouraged to stay indoors.
- Forest replanted and naturally recolonized. Exclusion zones.
- Area given National Monument status in 1982- tourist destination.
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- North America, Magma beneath Yellowstone currently shifting.
- Caldera bulging beneath lake, signs of increasing activities at Norris Geyser basin.
- Ground risen 70cm in places.
- Magma chamber: 80km long, 40km wide, 8km deep (recent studies show may be larger).
- Eruption is due.
- Potentially 5x the minimum size for a supervolcano.
- 10 000km of land lost.
- 87 000 dead.
- 15cm of ash would cover buildings within 1000km.
- 1 in 3 affected would die.
- Ash would affect transport, water, electricity, farming.
- UK would await arrival of ash some 5 days later.
- Global climates would change and crops would fail.
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- Tohoku, Japan.
- 11th March 2011, 9.0 magnitude.
- 100km East of Sendai. 3000m of coastline affected.
- Wall of water 40m high in 30 minutes, 9 additional waves 10m high.
- Destructive plate margin. Pacific beneath NA.
- Segment of rock slipped suddenly, upwards 'flick' between 5-10m.
- 20 000 dead, 200 000 buildings damaged, 500km squared coastal plains inundated.
- Explosions at Fukushima power plant, contamination, worries of meltdown.
- Electricity cut off in 6 million homes, 1 million lpeople left without running water.
- 100 000 Japanese soldiers deployed, specialist search and rescue teams flown in.
- Exclusion zone around power plant, evacuated from area.
- Huge rebuilding longer term, system of defenses reconsidered.
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