restless earth, climate and change, battle for the bioshpere, water world, coastal change and conflict, oceans on the edge


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Restless Earth

oceanic crust:The relatively thin part of the earth's crust that underlies the ocean basins.

Continental crust:The relatively thick part of the earth's crust that forms the large landmasses. It is generally older and more complex than the oceanic crust

asthenoshere:part of the mantle that is semi molten and lied beneath the tectonic plates

mantle: middle layer of the earth

outer core:The outer core of the Earth is a liquid layer about 2,266 km (1,408 mi) thick composed of iron and nickel which lies above the Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle.

inner core:The inner core of the Earth, its innermost part, is a primarily solid ball of molten metal

lithoshere: layer if rock arounf the earth

plate boundary: where two tectonic plates meet

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Restless Earth


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Restless Earth


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Restless Earth


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Restless Earth


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Restless Earth


  • 0 people killed
  • 800 families evacuated
  • tourism increased to see volcanoe
  • worst travel disrution ever due to ash cloud
  • £80 million compensation money paid to farmers who had lost crops
  • drinking wate made dirty


  • 19 people killed
  • 12 000 homes destroiyed
  • half of monserrat uninhabitable
  • illness and death due to lack of clean water and food
  • tourists stopped visiting
  • population dropped 1200 to 5000
  • water made dirty from ask clouds
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Restless Earth


  • 8 on the richter scale
  • fires and people trapped under rubble
  • no food or water
  • china is poorer and has less money to pay for damage
  • disease from no clean water
  • 70000 killed
  • 400000 injured


  • 7 on the richter scale
  • fires and people trapped under rubble
  • no clean water or food
  • disease from lack of clean water
  • 70 killed
  • 3760 killed
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Climate and Change

weather: short term, day to day changes in the atmoshere

climate:the average weater conditions over 30 years

inter glacials:warm periods (10000 -15000)

glacials :cold periods(ice ages) . ice sheets 400-3000 m thick extended across the northern hemishpere (80000-100000 years long)

prevailing winds: the most common winds

  • across land=dry
  • across sea=wet
  • from poles=cold
  • from equator=warm

geology: porous or permeable rocks lioke limestone and sandstone=dry conditions. therefore, this limits growth due to lack of water. impearimiable rocks like clays ar granite trap water and allow growth

releif:slopes facing the sun will be wrmer, and therefore allow more vegitation growth

drainage:areas that are poorly drained by rivers reduce growth (bogs and marshes)

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Climate and Change

climate change theorys

1. eruption theory

volcanoes erupted in the past habve ctreated an thicl leyer of ash all over the earth. this stops sunlight reaching the earth thus the climate cools.

2. sunspot theory

small black dots on the face of the sun. these show increased solar activity, this means the climate warms.

3.orbital theory

the earths orbit is slightly eliptical so when it gets closer, it gets warmer and when it gets further away it cools.also the earths axis wobbles slightly. this means there is a slight increase or decrease in temperature

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Climate and Change

NAMED EXAMPLE:THE LITTLE ICE AGE(how humans have been affected by climate change)

  • vikings in Greenland ran out of food and died as temeratures fell
  • in england there were "frost fairs" when the thames river froze.
  • crops failed
  • famin
  • glaciers in the alps grew and destroyed villages
  • they had to adapt to new climate
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Climate and Change

Geological climate event:a significant event in history of the earth that has changed the earth massively.

Ecosystem:the living and non living things in an environment

Extinction:a species of plant or animal dying out completely, none survive#

Food chain:plants provide food for other species of animals. the species are linked in some way.

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Climate and Change


1. Britain

costs of a warmer britain

  • drought and water shortages
  • more illness such a heatstroke and skin cancer
  • ot temperatures can melt road surfeces
  • crops have to be changed to adapt to hotter conditions
  • some plants and animals may die out


  • little heating costs
  • increaded tourism
  • new crops means more oppertunities for farmers
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Climate and Change


2. Bagladesh

bangladesh already suffers from the river Ganges flooding. it also suffers from snow melting in the himalayas and tropical storms.

how will climate change make this worse?

it will make it harder for people to find food due to increased flooding. this also means that more people die to increaded flooding. people move away from areas prone to flooding, this causes over population. farming is also affected

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