Restless Earth

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Plate Margins

Plate margins are action zones

  • Destructive (plates move together)
  • Constructive (plates move apart)
  • Conservative (plates slide past each other)
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  • Shield Volcanoes at constructive margins 
  • wide cone, gentle slopes, lava only
  • Composite Volcanoes at destructive plate margins
  • tall, steep, lava and ash, violent eruptions
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Effect of Volcanic eruptions

  • Negative during erpution
  • people killed, farmland destroyed
  • Positive after eruption
  • fertile soil, tourism, geothermal power
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Responses to a volcanic eruption

Immediate - during the eruption

  • people moved out of danger zone

Long-term -recovery and development

  • some and unusable development, forced migration
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  • Erupt massive volumes of material
  • At least 1000 times more than normal
  • Global effects- dust cooling world climate
  • last eruption- Toba 75,000 years ago
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Most at destructive or conservative margins

  • Focus underground where quake occurs
  • Epicentre point above focus on surface
  • Richeter Scale measure the strengh of the earthquake
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Effects of earthquakes

Primary effects immediate effects

Building collapse, people killed/ injured

Secondary effects  later effects 

fires, landslides, diseases, tsunamis

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immediate responses

  • emergancy/ relief aid needed
  • specialist rescue and medical teams
  • blankets and tents for outdoor sleeping
  • supply of clean water and medicine

long-term responses

  • preperation for next earthquake
  • hold drills
  • train rescue teams
  • build earthquake proof buildings
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  • Volcanoes can be monitored
  • Detect movement/ higher temperatures
  • Known zones with high earthquake risks
  • But earthquakes prediction is immpossible
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Fold Mountains

  • formed along destructive plate margins
  • sediments in the sea bed compressed
  • folded up into long, high mountain ranges
  • recent, some still rising e.g. Himalayas 
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Human uses of the Alps

Traditional Farming and Forestery                                                                     

                                                                       More recent- tourism, winter skiing

                   Summer mountain sceneary and lakes                                             

                                 Industry , HEPO for sawmills, metal smelters                       

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