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Case study : Fold mountain, The Alps- uses- Indust

Industries usage of the Alps

  • Industries use the region mainly for logging.  The mountains and valleys are covered in coniferous forests (pine trees, conifers etc.) and these are cut down to make wood for building, paper, fuel and even cuckoo clocks.  The trees are always replanted to make the industry sustainable and the large number of rivers provide a good source of water for sawmills in the region.  The Alps used to be used for salt, iron ore, gold, silver and copper mining but cheaper competition has encouraged mining companies to leave the region.
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FORMATION OF FOLD MOUNTAINS

Image result for formation of fold mountains (http://www.acegeography.com/uploads/1/8/6/4/18647856/1649046_orig.jpg?371)

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Case study : Fold mountain, The Alps- uses- HEP

Uses- HEP

  • The Alps are an ideal location for the production of HEP as there are steep slopes to produce fast flowing streams(lots of energy). The high rainfall and snowmelt in the spring provides a lot of water to power the HEP plants.They are able to build dams across valleys and make manmade reservoirs to provide Hydroelectric Power (HEP) to the area (60% of Switzerland’s energy comes from HEP from the Alps).   Finally the narrow valleys are easy to dam. As a result the electricity produced is usually very cheap and this attracts industries who rely on the cheap energy.
    The main industry in the region is forestry which relies on the conifers for building purposes, paper, fuel and even for cuckoo clocks.
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Case study : Fold mountain, The Alps- uses- Touris

Tourism- uses

  • Tourism is a prime use of the Alps with winter sports, such as skiing, a huge attraction to the area.  Local residents run hotels, ski schools and entertainments to support the tourism industry, which has over 20 million visitors per year.  In the summer months, the area offers walking, climbing and mountain biking opportunities, along with other outdoor activities, and in doing so, keeps the local workers’ incomes fairly consistent throughout the year 
  • Over 20 million people visit the Alps every year and the main reasons are as follows:
    * Beautiful winter scenery with snow capped peaks and forests
    * Winter sports resorts for skiing, skating and tobogganing
    * Summer lake resorts such as at Lake Como, Lake Garda and Lake Geneva
    Excellent communications which includes motorways, railways and airports. Tunnels have been built to access ski resorts such as Livigno
    * The alpine climate have attracted many for the snow and clean dry air, especially those with breathing problems.   
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Case study : Fold mountain, The Alps

The Alps

The Alps fold mountain range are located in Central Europe and cover Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Germany and France.  They were created when the African Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate causing the rock in a geosyncline to be folded up into a mountain range that stretches over 4,000m up.

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Case study : Fold mountain, The Alps- uses- Farmin

Farming

  • Farming is a primary activity in all of the fold mountain ranges around the world. Mainly, due to the height and steepness of many of the slopes, this is restricted to cattle and sheep farming. However people a type of lance scaping called terracing , this is where a slpoded plane has been cut into  a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming .Image result for terracing (http://2ff8n03drmib1b12373aauek-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/assets/images/Photography/Terraced%20Fields/inca%20terraces%205.jpg)
  • Vineyards are also found on sunny, South facing slopes to help boost farmers’ income through a process called diversification (changing farming methods to suit the current/future situation)
  • In the Alps a system called transhumance was used. This basically is the seasonal movement of grazing animals between the high ground in the warmer summer months and the valley floors in the colder autumn months. Nowadays transhumance is a little outdated as modern technology has meant that farmers can stay in one place all year.
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FORMATION OF FOLD MOUNTAINS

Formation of fold mountains

  • Rivers transport material to the oceans and sediment falls to the bed of the ocean and is deposited there
  • layers of sedimentary rock built up over millions of years
  • The weight of the water and the following layers of sediment cause compaction
  • As the (continental) plates move together,  they force the accumulated sediment in the sea up into folds the rock layers are compressed/crumpled to form high areas known as anticlines and lower areas known as synclines.
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Case study : Fold mountain, The Alps - How people

How People Have Adapted 

  • Farmers have adapted their practise to working in fold mountains by diversifying their techniques and using technology to move away from transhumance.  As the valleys get more built up through tourism, the space available to farmers decreases so they have to design new methods of farming, such as introducing vineyards or providing campsites for tourists to help boost their income.
  • The greater overall usage of the Alps has meant that communication links, e.g. Glacial express, roads, has been improved making it easier to move around the Alps and ensure people can live and work more effectively.  Even ski lifts and cable cars can be used to move around both people and also farmers’ animals.
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Case study : Fold mountain, The Alps - How people

How people have adapted- pt2

  • Locals have developed new ways of supporting tourism from building new resorts to offering different types of activities in the summer and winter, all to try and encourage people to visit the area.  This provides jobs year round and a considerable income for the area.
  • Energy companies have used the steep sided valleys to build dams, reservoirs and HEP plants to provide energy, using the regions natural topography to provide more efficient forms of energy.
  • Industry uses natural resources, particularly trees, to provide wood for a variety of uses.  Deforested trees are replanted to preserve the resource and in doing so, long term employment is provided.
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How Earthquakes are measured

Mercalli scale

The Mercalli scale measures the damage done by earthquakes. This is a visual scale using what people in the area feel, and their obbservations of damage . A table indicates what level to score an earthquake on – in a range from Roman numerals I to XII where I is hardly noticeable and XII means total destruction of the built-up area.

Richter scale

The strength, or magnitude, of an earthquake ismeasured using the Richter scale. The Richter scale is numbered 0-10.

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Primary effects of an earthquake

Primary effects (the immediate damage)Collapsing bridges and buildings

  • Cracked and twisted roads & other transport links
  • Death and injuries to individuals
  • Panic and shock of the people affected
  • Water pipes may burst and water supplies may be contaminated.
  • Shops and business may be destroyed. 
  • The built landscape may be destroyed.
  • Fires can spread due to gas pipe explosions.
  • Fires can damage areas of woodland.
  • Landslides may occur.
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Secondary effects of an earthquake

Secondary effects (the after affects of an earthquake)

·         Fires caused by broken gas mains and electrical cables. Fires develop due to the lack of water from broken pipes

·         Tidal waves or Tsunamis often result from an earthquake such as the boxing day Tsunami in 2004.

·         Landslides in steep sided valleys where the rocks are often weak

·         Disease and famine due to lack of clean water and medical facilities

·         Death caused by the cold of winter such as in the Kashmir quake of 2005

·         Economic impacts - ie Many tourists were put off from visiting areas that had suffered due to the Boxing Day Tsunami

·         The cost of rebuilding a settlement is high. Investment in the area may be focused only on repairing the damage caused by the earthquake. Income could be lost.

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Secondary effects of an earthquake

Secondary effects (the after affects of an earthquake)

·         Fires caused by broken gas mains and electrical cables. Fires develop due to the lack of water from broken pipes

·         Tidal waves or Tsunamis often result from an earthquake such as the boxing day Tsunami in 2004.

·         Landslides in steep sided valleys where the rocks are often weak

·         Disease and famine due to lack of clean water and medical facilities

·         Death caused by the cold of winter such as in the Kashmir quake of 2005

·         Economic impacts - ie Many tourists were put off from visiting areas that had suffered due to the Boxing Day Tsunami

·         The cost of rebuilding a settlement is high. Investment in the area may be focused only on repairing the damage caused by the earthquake. Income could be lost.

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