Restless Earth

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Kobe,Japan

  • Epicentrewas on Awaji
  • 5:46am, 17 January 1995
  • 7.2 on Richter Scale, lasted 20 seconds
  • On a minor fault line (Nojima Fault)
  • Phillippine and Pacific plate (destructuve Plate Boundary) forced under Eurasion Plate
  • Wave energy travels through the crust causing the Earth to move
  • Ground moved 18cm horizontally an 12cm vertically
  • Port area damaged and the coast liquiefied
  • Electricity, gas and water supplies disrupted
  • 5,500 died and 40,000 injured
  • Shortage of blankets, clena water and food
  • Heat seeking equipment used to find people whowere trapped
  • Hospitals were set up in schools
  • Emergency services and army brought in to help
  • Replacement buildings have to meet stonger Earthquake standards
  • Buildings built on solid rock to prevent liquifraction
  • New buildings built further apart (to prevent domino effect)
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Haiti, In the Caribbean

  • North American Plate sliding past Caribbean plate (Conservative Plate)
  • Pressure built up due to friction between plates was eventually released
  • Magnitude 7 Earthquake, epicentre 16 miles west of Port-au-Prince
  • Shallow focus of 5 miles
  • 12 January 2010, 16:43pm
  • 316,000 people killed
  • 250,000 homes destroyed, 30,000 buildings damaged
  • Main prison destroyed, 4,000 inmates escaped
  • Transport and communication links badly damaged
  • Mass graves built to stop spread of disease
  • Aid was delayed due to lack of medical supplies 
  • People began to loot
  • $100 million in aid given USA
  • 4.3 million people given food rations
  • Specialist teams with heat seeking equipment devices and sniffer dogs flown in
  • Cash for Work programs are paying Hatians to clear rubble
  • Small farmers are being supported to grow crops
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Tsunami

  • Indo-Australlian plate pushed under Eurasion plate
  • Magnitude of 9.0
  • 26th December 2004, 7:58 local time
  • Waves were up to 25 metres high
  • Pressure built up at plate boundary between plates until one slipped and flexed
  • Plate displaced a column of water above and sent a wave out in all directions from epicentre
  • Caused by underwater Earthquake
  • Tectonic plates moving below sea cause a tidal surge that createsa huge wave
  • 1500 settlements completely wiped out
  • 5-6 million urgently needed emergency supplies
  • 230,000 people were killed or missing
  • 4,500 fishing boats destroyed
  • 650,000 people were seriously injured
  • Economy lost a lot of tourism income
  • Electricity and communications systems disrupted
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