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Mount st Helens- effects

  • 18th May 1980 in USA
  • Destructive plate boundary (jaun de fuca and N.American)
  • magnitute 5 at 8.32am
  • bulge on side of volcano erupted

PRIMARY- hot ash and gas detroyed 25km of plants and animals, Mudflows in spirit lake killed 12million salmon, 63 people died and 30km of trees killed by lahars

SECONDARY-cost of ash damage to farmers crops and machinery was £100million, the soil fertility improved, sediment carried downstream ruined columbia river

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yellow stone-super volcano

  • yellow stone national park in US
  • a supervolcano erupts atleast 1000km of material, forms a caldera and eruptions are thousands of years apart

LIKELY EFFECTS- 25mile ash cloud results in volcanic winter- diseases like bronchitus, drop in global temp by 20', no crops so drop in food and 2/3 of USA inhabitable

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Kobe (MEDC)- earthquake

  • 17th jan 1995 in japan
  • 7.4 magnitude
  • phillipenes, eurasian and pacific plates

PRIMARY EFFECTS- 35000 people injured, over £10000 bill for 102,000 buildings destroyed despite earthquake proof design

SECONDARY EFFECTS- 316000 left homeless and moved into tempory homes, 300 fires taking 2 days to put out

RESPONSES-in 20 years all buildings have been earthquake proofed e.g rubber shock absorbers, schools have drills, took unit july for all rubble to be cleared

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Haiti (LEDC)- earthquake

  • caribbean island in indian ocean
  • 12th jan 2010
  • magnitude 7
  • conservative boundary between caribbean and N.America plate

PRIMARY EFFECTS- 1.3 mill homeless, 300000 injured, main hospitsl collaped, 30000 commerical buildings collapsed 

SECONDARY EFFECTS- 19mill meters of rubble, 5000 schools damaged- total cost £11.5 billion and 1100 camps set up

RESPONSES- uk disaster emergency raised over £100mill, search teams in helicopters sent from MEDCs

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boxing day tsunami

  • Indian ocean- thailand
  • 26th december 2004
  • magnitude 9

CAUSES- indo australian plate subducting below eurasian plate, displaced a column of water

SOCIAL IMPACTS- 230000 deaths, 1.7mill homeless, cholera broke out

ECONOMIC IMPACTS- 60% of fishing fleet destroyed, forgein visitors to phuket dropped by 80% in 2005

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS- 8mill litres of oil escaped destroying crops, mangrove forest destroyed

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Andes- uses of fold mountains

  • W,coast of america
  • run over 7000km of land
  • formed by subduction between oceanic Nazca plate and continetal american plate

FARMING-llamas carry goods, maze grown in valley

MINING- coal gold and silver in Yanacocha- the largest mine in Peru

HYDROELECTRIC- deep valley so snow melts then runs down, el platinal project started in 2009

TOURISM- inca trail-43km, one of 23 world heritage sites

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