Why plants respond to the enviroment
What do animals respond to? what do they also respond to? responding in this way avoids what? and to do what? what are tropisms? Name the four types? What it does? And what it enables them to do?
What do hormones coordinate? What are plant hormones? What can they be transported away from? To where? Although what do some do? What are they refered to as? Rather than? Why? what do hormones do when they reach target cells? What do specific hormones have? What can they only bind to? what does this specific binding assure? What are some plant hormones important? Name the three ways they can move around? What can some hormones have differently? What can some do? What sis this called? What can some cancel? Called? What can hormonse influence? Give the hormone and effect (5)?
How plants respond to the enviroment
How do animal and cells walls differ? What does the cell wall limit? What does this mean for growth? Why these places what are these places called? Where are apical meristems? What are they reseponsible for? What about lateral bud meristems? What could they give rise to? and lateral mersitems? Responsible for? What about inercalary meristems? Wheres this? What is this resposnbiel for?where does cell division happen closet to? what about cell elongation? Name an auxin? Where aer they produced? How does auxin travel? To where? Causing what? making what happen? What do auxins do? What is the extent of the cells elongation proportional to? what do auxins increase? How? By what enzyme? Where? Into where? What does the resulting low ph provide? What do these enzymes do? Making what? allowing what?
What does a shoot do in a phototrophic response? Why does this happen? What does this push? Where? What does experiemnets involving cereal deelings suggest? What do they promote? Making the shoot do what? what is still uncertain? What two enzymes have been identified? What is their activity promoted by? Wavelength? What is their a lot of activity on the light side? Less where? What is this called? What is it though to cause?
What do cuytokinins stop? Meaning? How? What does this mean? What if cytokinins drops? What is this followed by? What does auxins inhibit? How? However what does leaf senescence cause? What does this make cells where? More? Called? What does a drop in auxin concentration cause? What deos this increase? What does it do? Eventually what?
What is the largest part of the brain?what is it divided into? What are they connected by? What is the surface area of the outermost layer? What is it like? Consist of what? known as? How is this region different in humans than other organisms? What is it in control of? Such as? What is the cerebral cortex like? For what? into what? for what? what do sensory areas do? What do assosicaiton areas do? What do motor areas do? Where are the motor areas? What do they control? Label the brain?
What is the conscious decision to move voluntary muscles initiated by? What cant this alone do? Fine control of muscular movements such as those involved in? what do they require? Give example for muscle activities? Sensory activites? Tensioning of msucles? Feedback information on? Operation of what? what carry impulses from the cerebellum? To where? So what can happen? What does this explain? What are they said to become? Into where? What does it also explain? What does the cerebellum contain? What does it play a key role in? what does it process? From what locations? Name two other brain ergions? Outline their functions?
Organising the nervous system
What is a characteristic of living thingS? What enviroments? What do all organisms need a method of then? Between? What do animals need to be able to coordinate? To do what? what are these responses?
What does the nervous system coordinate the actions of the body through? What does it work in conjuction with? What are both essential in? what is it structuarally and functionally? What does this help to describe? And understand? What does the central nervous system consist of? What is it made up of? What are these? And? What are these? What makes it appear white? What is the peripheral nervous system is made up of? That do what? what do sensory neurones carry? from? Around what? to where? Wat do motor neurones carry? from? To? what is the motor system further subdivided into? What do somatic motor neurones carry?f from? To? under what control? Meaning? Autonomic carry what? from where to where? What are none of these?
What does autonomic translate as? Referring to what? what is the system responsible for? Plays a vital role in? what is the system capable of? Give one way the autonomic system differs from somatic? Also autonomic connections to effectors always what? where in somatic? What do the two neurones connect aT? Whats the last difference? How do sympathetic and parasympathetic differ? What are they often refrfered to as? Why? what is it important to remember? What do changes to internal conditions or stimulation of stress response lead to? what does this lead to? what is the balance of stimulation controlled by? Compare parasympathetic and sympathetic?
What do coordinated movements require? What are voluntary muscles attached to? by? How do they move? What are tendons made of? What is continuous? What is it?
When are muscles only capable of producing a force? So what does the movement of any bone at a joint require? What happens as one muscle is stimulated to contract? How do muscles work? Is it with each other? Whats this described as? What deos the movement of bones at many joints require? Under the control of what? what is the elbow joint an example of? Where do these joints occur? What is the synovial fluid? What does it do? What are the two muscles? How do they act? In order to? Give the steps?
What does the nervous system control? Why? what do impulses arriving at the neuromuscular junction do? What is a neuromuscular junction similar to? what do some muscular contractions a stronger? Give example? What controls the strength of contractopns? Because? What does each one branch to? causing? Known as? The more what stimulated the greater the? What is this known as?
Three types of muscles
What are muscles composed of? What are they like? What do they form? What are muscles cells able to do? What do all muscles produce? When? Why? what proteins? What are the three types of muscle? What are involuntary also known as? What are voluntary muscle also known as? Whats the difference between them?
What is smooth muscles innervated by? Of what system? What does this mean for the contractions of this muscle type? For these locations give the arrangement of muscles cells and action- walls of the intestine, iris of the eye and wall of arteries and around arterioles; wall of uterus? Under microscopic examination what is seen in involuntary muscles? What are they refrrred to as? What do they contain? Of? Amd a single? What size are cells in the relaxed state? Rate of contraction? What does thes muscle also do slowly?
Three types of muscles
What does cardiac muscle form? What are the three types? Atrial and ventricular muscles contract similioar to what? whats longer? What what contract feebly? What do they conduct? What do they control? What are some cardiac muscles capable of? Without what? what is this descibred as? What do neurones of the autonomic system carry? to do what? what does sympathetic do? What does parasympathetic do? Where is the SAN? What is it made of? What does it have the ability to do? What does the electricity generated do? What seperates atria and ventrices? Meaning? What does the AV node do? Via? What are cardiac muscles fibres made of? What are the dark areas? Which are? What do these membranes do? What does this mean for action potentials? Through what? what are cardiac muscles like under the microscope? What is throughout life? What does this type strength contract? Without?
What does ther action of voluntary muscles lead to? what does this move? What do muscle cells form? Size? Containg serveal? What is each fibre surrounded by? Called? What is muscle cell cytoplasm known aS? Contains organelles such as? What does microscope examination of voluntary muscles show? What does this type of muscle contract like? What does it do quickly? Unlike what?
The sliding filament model
What is different under the microscope? What is the sarcomere? What is it in the relaxed state? What about during contraction? Why? what doesn’t change in length?
What are the two types of protein filament found in muscle cells? How many strands are thin filamentS? Made of? Called? How is it structured? What is each starnd composed of? What sort of protein? What is tropomyosin? How are they structured? What does this cause? What is a troponin compelx attached to? what does each one consit of? What does one bind to? one to? what does this ensure? Whats the last one? Whata re thick filamentS? What does each myosin molecule consist of? How many does it consist of? Whats the head like?
The sliding filament model
In muscle contractions what is the first stage? Forming? What does the head group then? Causing the thin filament to? what sort of stroke is this? What is released? What does the cross bridge then do? Why? what does the head group then do? As ATP? What can it hten form? And do what again? In a contacrtion how many cros-bridges? Causing what? what does this cause the whole length of the muscle? What are the binding sites for the myosin head group on the action fibre covered by? What does this mean it cant contain? What cannot form? What cant occur? When an actiona potential arrives where? What is released? From wehere? What do these calcium ions do? Bind where? What does this binding cause? What does it move? Where? What are uncovered? What forms? What is allowed? What happens when nervous stimulation stops? By what? what does this lead to? when the myosin head group attaches to the actin binding site what does it do? What form are they in? what is required to break the cross-bridge connection? What is re-set? What can then attach? Where? And do what?
How long can ATP support contraction? Why? what has to happen to ATP to allow continued contraction? Three mechanisms by which the ATP supply is maintained- aerobic respiration where? What is the level at which ATP is regenerated dependent on? Availaibilty of? Anaerobic respiration where? What speed is this? Leads to the poduciton of? Which is? What does the lactate enter? Where it leads to the stimulation of? Transfer from creatine phosphate where? What can the phosphate group from creatine phosphate ne transferred to? what speed? By the action of? What is it sufficient to support? For how long?
Pulling together- muscles, nerves and hormones
What do mammals possess? What do the internal and external environment do? What do they have to be then? By what? what systems? What feed information into the system? What does this range from? What are the responses to stimuli? Ensuring? Give examples of short and long term examples?what is the coordination of responses ti the external environment the result of? To assess what? what does this brain also do? Through what aprts?
What does the perception of a threat to a safety of a mammal lead to? what do they do? How? Physiologial changes- what dilate? What increase? What cosntric? Whats released? What form may the perception of the threat come in? sexample? What would it elict? What does the cerebral understanding of a threat activate? What dos this stimulate? Triggers the release of? From? Into where? What does the hypothalamus also release? Into where? Causing that to release? From? What deos this hormone stimulate? What do these help the body do? What combined effects change the fight or flight response?
On perception of a threat what is their a period of? If its from another animal what does the animal assess? What is this assessment? What would they do?
What is beahvioru described as? What must an organism be able to do? In what form? What do they then do? Through what? what can a stimulus lead to? what is this a simple form of? What are more complicated behaviours a result of? What are genetically determined? What are learned? List 4 innate behaviours? Learned behaviours? What are innate behaviours? What about learned?
What do invertebrases rely for their survival? What do they allow them to do? What are their life spans? What about their lives? What don’t they do? What does each of these mean for their behaviour? Why? what do many invertebres have? Whats the function? What do earthworms do? What about in humans? Are they a choice? What do they follow? What is a kinesis? What is the behaviour? Meaning? How do woodlice avoid predators and damp? What if placed in dry/bright conditions>?what about in damp? What response is this? Why? what is a taxis? What is it described as? What is positive phototaxis? What about positive chemotaxis? Where can taxis also be seen? Where are chemorectpors? What do they sense? What can the animals be observed? To do what? before? What does the linking togetrh of a series of innate bhaviours give? What is the waggle dance?
Behaviour can be learned
What is learned behaviour described as? What is better? What do animals have longer? An elemnt of? What do they also? What is the main advtange of learned behaviour?
What is habituation? Are they found in animals or invertebaes? Birds? What is involved in stimuli in the environment? What does it allow humans to do? What does it avoid? What is imprinting? What do goxlings do? After that what? when does imprinting only occur? Known aS? How long when? What is it significant in? what do skills include? What was observed in classical conditioning? What is this normal? What is it response to? what was done? What did eh ring? When? What did eh notice? What is the rinign kown as? What does it lead to? called? What is this called? What does it describe? What sort of behaviour is this? What can also be added? What is used for rats and pigeions? What was the experioemnt? What is this sort of conditing? What are rewards and punishments reffered to as? What can the reward be for monkeys? What type of learning si this? What can this be reffered to as in natural circumstances? What will animals explore? What do they retain? Rabbits? Why can this knowledge be live saving? What is insight? What is it based on? Once solved what then? Monkeys?
What are primateS? What do they include? As well as? What do most primates live in? what do the young do? In chimps how long? What do the oragnisaton of groups usually show? Where different indivduals have? What do these lead to? whats the benfit? What do primates have large? Compared to? with a highly developed? What is this linked to? what is thought that all social behaviours in primates are derived from?
What do mountain goriallas live in? called? How many? What does it cobsit of? What the dominant called? Whats his job? What happens as younger males reach sexual maturity? What do younger females do? What is an important social activity? What does one do to another? How many ? reifncoring what? who is responsible for the young? What happens for the first five months? 12 months? During this period what does the female do? What does the young do? When does further learning take place? As they do what? who is important in the development from 3-6? Why? what systems exist? A variety of what exist? To signal what? what do juveniles learn? What are also improatn? In terms of?
What do many organisms demonstrate? From? Give a female advantage of social behaviour in primateS? What do the young learn by observing? What about the final brain size? What does this mean for the security? What is shared with the group? Greater ability to do what?
Human behaviour, dopamine and DNA
What does dopamine act as? And? What type of molecule? In the production of? What are abnormally low level of dopamine associated with? What does the treatment involve? Unfortunately what does the raised dopamine level come from? Whats it been linked to? what has been noted pateitns with parkinsons disease are trated with prone to? what does dopamine increase? Decrease? Leading to? what is the range of activites affecred by dopamine due to? how many dopamine receptors? Reffered to as? What are these coded by? Binding of dopamine is inovled in what? including? What is it linked to? how do antipsychotic drug work?
How many vairants of DRD4 gene? How do the variants differ? Known aS? What does a short section of nucletoides show? What have studies shown some of these variatns to implicate? What is it thought that the inheritance of a particular DRD4 gene affect? Name a drug used to treat ADHD affect dopamine levels in the brain? What have studies also shown? What have studies shown an increase in? including? What showed a difference in general arousal? Also a significant difference?
What has the interst into drd4 and dopamine stimulated research into? Between? What is also thought to be a result from a defucuency in these levels? What neurotransmitter>? What was done in 2007? How manyu people ? how many famnles? What were found?