- State that glycolysis occours in cytoplasm of cells
- Outline the process of glycolysis
- 10 reactions consisting of 4 stages catalysed by enzymes and coA:
- 1 ATP hydrolysed and the phosphate attached to glucose at C6.
- glucose 6 phosphate becomes frutose 6 phosphate
- Another ATP is hydrolysed and attached to the fructose 6 phosphate at C1
- Making fructose 1,6 bisphosphate
- Energy from ATP used to activate the hexose sugar so it can be transported from the cell.
- The phosphorylated and ativated sugar is now referd to as hexose 1,6 bisphosphate
- 2 ATP molecules used for each molecule of glucose.
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2) splitting of hexose 1,6 bisphosphate
- Each moleule of the above is split in to two molecules of triose phosphate (TP) Three carbon sugar.
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3) Oxidation of triose phosphate
- note that this process in anerobic but oxidation is required
- 2 H atoms are removed from each TP molecule
- This involves dehydrogenase enzymes and hydrogen acceptor coA
- NAD accepts the H atoms becoming reduced NAD
- 2 NAD are reduced per 1 molecule of glucose
- 2 ATP formed by substrate level phosphorylation
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4) Conversion of phosphate to pyruvate
- 4 enyzme catalysed reactions convert each TP molecule in to a molecule of pyruvate (3C)
- 2 ADP are phosphorylated to make 2 molecules of ATP (substrate level phosphorylation)
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Products of glycolysis
- 2 ATP (Net gain) (4 have been made but 2 used to start proess)
- 2 Reduced NAD (carry H atoms via shunt to mitochondrial membranes used to generate more ATP in oxidative phosphorylation)
- 2 pyruvate
- State that in aerobic respiration pyruvate is activley transported in to mitochondria
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