Respiration: Glycolysis

Respiration: Glycolysis

Objectives highlighted are included in the A2 biology for OCR specifiation.

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Glycolysis

  • State that glycolysis occours in cytoplasm of cells
  • Outline the process of glycolysis
  • 10 reactions consisting of 4 stages catalysed by enzymes and coA:

1) Phosphorylation 

  • 1 ATP hydrolysed and the phosphate attached to glucose at C6.
  • glucose 6 phosphate becomes frutose 6 phosphate
  •  Another ATP is hydrolysed and attached to the fructose 6 phosphate at C1 
  • Making fructose 1,6 bisphosphate
  • Energy from ATP used to activate the hexose sugar so it can be transported from the cell.
  • The phosphorylated and ativated sugar is now referd to as hexose 1,6 bisphosphate
  • 2 ATP molecules used for each molecule of glucose.
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2) splitting of hexose 1,6 bisphosphate

  • Each moleule of the above is split in to two molecules of triose phosphate (TP) Three carbon sugar.
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3) Oxidation of triose phosphate

  • note that this process in anerobic but oxidation is required
  • 2 H atoms are removed from each TP molecule
  • This involves dehydrogenase enzymes and hydrogen acceptor coA 
  • NAD accepts the H atoms becoming reduced NAD
  • 2 NAD are reduced per 1 molecule of glucose
  • 2 ATP formed by substrate level phosphorylation
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4) Conversion of phosphate to pyruvate

  • 4 enyzme catalysed reactions convert each TP molecule in to a molecule of pyruvate (3C)
  • 2 ADP are phosphorylated to make 2 molecules of ATP (substrate level phosphorylation)
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Products

Products of glycolysis

  •  2 ATP (Net gain) (4 have been made but 2 used to start proess)
  • 2 Reduced NAD (carry H atoms via shunt to mitochondrial membranes used to generate more ATP in oxidative phosphorylation)
  • 2 pyruvate
  • State that in aerobic respiration pyruvate is activley transported in to mitochondria 
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