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Define a resource

A resource is any aspect of the environment which can be used to meet human needs:

  • non renewable 
  • semi renewable - renewability dependant upon human resources and investment 
  • Renewable
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Give examples of the three types of resources

Non renewable

  • coal 
  • oil
  • gas 

These are expected to run out in the next 100 years

Semi Renewable

  • wood
  • meat/fish
  • cotton


  • solar
  • wind
  • geothermal
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What is the difference between abiotic and bioitc

Biotic - resources such as wood that are derived from a living organism. They are found at the surface of the earth.

Abiotic- are not derived from living organisms and ae found below the surface of the Earth

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How does Blunden classify resources

  • ubiquitous- metallic minerals such as gravel
  • loclaised non metalic minerals such as salt
  • non ferrous metals including copper and tin
  • ferrous metals 
  • carbon and hydrocarbon fuels
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Define the following types of resources

  • paramarginal- resources recoverable at costs as much as one and a half times that those can be borne now 
  • submarginal- are more costly to extract due to location, expense of technology, operating cost and capital cost
  • Point resource- more expensive
  • Diffuse resource - less expensive as more availability - sand and gravel
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Technology changes which have influenced resources

  • Devleopment of nucleur power in 1934
  • devleopment of renewable energy- off shore wind farms
  • oil reserves in the North sea due to advances in sea technology
  • electrification of the railway system 1948
  • 1978 Gilchrist Thomas developed the iron and steal industry
  • mining can occur at the greatest depths
  • Green Peace- 4 new wind farms approved in Scotland
  • Overfishising is happening
  • Uranium generates 20% of the worlds energy die to the discovery of fissile
  • October 2014 Europe backed Hinkley nucleur plant which will be built in somerset and cost £24.5 billion
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Physical reasons for variation in energy supply

Deposits of fossil fuels are only found in a limited number of locations

Tidal power stations require a very large tidal range

Wind power needs high average speeds throughout the year

Large scale hydroelectric development requires high precipitation, major steep sided valleys and impermeable rock

Large power stations require flat land and geologically stable foundations

Solar power needs a large number of days a year with strong sunlight

The availability of biomass varies widely due to climatic conditions

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Economic reasons for variation in energy supply

The most accessible and lowest cost deposits of fossil fuels are invariably developed first

Onshore deposits of oil and gas are usually cheaper to develop than offshore deposits

Potential hydroelectric sites close to major transport routed and existing  electricity transmission corridors are more economical to build than those in very inaccessible locations

In poor countries foreign direct investment is often essential for the development of energy resources

When energy prices rise significantly companies increase spending on exploration and development

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Political reasons for variation in energy supply

Countries wanting to develop nuclear electricity require permission from the international atomic energy agency

International agreements such as the Kyoto protocol have considerable influence on the energy decisions of individual countries

Potential HEP schemes on ‘international rivers’ may require the agreement of other countries that share the river

Governments may insist on energy companies producing a certain proportion of their energy from renewable resources Legislation regarding emissions from power stations will favour the use, for example, of low sulphur coal as opposed to coal with a high sulphur content.

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Renewable resources profile

use notes !!!

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Explain the Clark fisher model

The overall global demand for resources increases with population growth and rise of living standards

Post indutrial

  • USA/UK
  • majority of people employed in the tertiary sector/quarternary sector
  • primary jobs disappear and people move to urban areas
  • human labour is replaced by machinery
  • globalisation caused a loss of heavy industry


  •  resource manufacturing increased
  • pollution increases
  • increased demand for resources in NIC'S s in particular has led to a signifacant price increase for commodities
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explain the clark fisher model

Pre industrial

  • everything is cheap
  • labour is intensive
  • reliant on good weather
  • hand made goods
  • fairtrade
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