Resource Management


Key Definitions

  • resource: a stock/supply of something that has a value or purpose (food, water, energy).
  • physical water scarcity: no rainfall (doesn't have a water supply).
  • economic water scarcity: can't afford to exploit the water supply.
  • agribusiness: intensive farming which maximises the amount of food produced on one farm.
  • organic: grown without use of chemicals and sold "in season".
  • water surplus: supply is greater than demand.
  • water deficit: demand is greater than supply.
  • water stress: for a period of time, an area has less water/low water quality.
  • grey water: waste water from our houses.
  • water transfer: matching supply with demand by moving water from an area.
  • energy mix: the proportions of different energy sources used by a country. 
  • sustainable energy supply: balancing waste and demand and reducing waste and inefficiency.
  • energy conservation: energy demand can be reduced by increasing it.
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Water Distribution & Facts

  • Water has a wide range of uses. These include: drinking, washing and industrial manufacturing.
  • The average person in the UK uses 150 litres daily at home.
  • 1/3 of the world's population doesn't have access to clean water.
  • Physical Water Scaracity: Occurs most in LICs but in a few NEEs near the North-South Divide.
  • Economic Water Scarcity: Occurs most in LICs & Africa.
  • Little/No Water Scarcity: All HICs and most NEEs.
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Food Distribution & Facts

  • The calories needed per day depend on the type of job you perform, your age and your gender.
  • Food production potential is controlled by many factors: climate soil and level of technology.
  • 2 billion people suffer from malnutrition - a poorly balanced diet lacking in minerals and vitamins. This can result in a range of diseases and illnesses.
  • Very High Malnutrition (35%+): A few countries in Central Africa.
  • High Malnutrition (25-34%): A few countries in North Africa and South-East Africa.
  • Moderately High Malnutrition (15-24%): 1/2 of the NEEs.
  • Moderately Low Malnutrition (5-14%): 1/2 of the NEES.
  • Very Low Malnutrition (<5%): All HICs and a few NEES.
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Energy Distribution & Facts

  • Energy is required for economic development. It powers factories and machinery and provides fuel for transport.
  • Energy consumption is increasing as the world becomes more developed and demand increases.
  • Today, there is renewable energy from the wind and waves as well as nuclear energy and solar power.

Energy consumption in the world is not evenly distributed. The areas that have the highest energy consumptions are HICS, particularly North America and Australia. The reason for this is that these areas have the most factories and are more developed in the world of technology. The areas that have the lowest energy consumption are LICs, particularly Central Africa. The reason for this is that they can't afford to have factories and energy-consuming industry. 

Reasons for Increased Use:

  • As countries develop, they require more energy.
  • Consumer goods consume energy in their manufacture, as well as their usage.
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Provision of Food in the UK

Why does the UK import so much food?

  • There is a demand for a greater choice and more exotic foods.
  • Some food is cheaper abroad, which means that it can be cheaper in supermarkets.
  • There is demand for seasonal produce all year round.
  • The UK's climate is unsuitable to produce many foods.

What is the impact of importing food?

  • Many foods have to travel quite far to reach the UK - known as food miles.

What are the alternatives to importing food?

  • Limiting imported food to those we can't grow.
  • Growing food at home.
  • Eating more locally produced foods.
  • Eating seasonal produce in season.
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CASE STUDY: Lynford House Farm & Riverford Organic

Lynford House Farm

  • The land is intensively farmed toi increase the amount of produce.
  • Chemicals are used such as pesticides and fertilisers.
  • The farm has invested in a 54 million litre reservoir to tackle water shortages.

Riverford Organic Farm

  • It reduces food miles.
  • It supports local farmers.
  • It provides local employment.
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Provision of Water in the UK

  • Transferring Water: In 2006, the government proposed to establish a water grid to tackle this.

In the South East, there is very high population densities but moderate rainfall, this means there is a water deficit. In the North, there is very low population densities but heavy rainfall leading to a water surplus. Therefore, water stress is serious in the South East compared to low in the North.

How is water in the UK polluted?

  • Agriculture uses fertilisers which washes into rivers, industry leaks pollutants, raw sewage and litter.
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Provision of Energy in the UK

How is UK's energy demand changing?

  • Decline in heavy industry and improved energy conservation. Appliances use less energy, building design has improved and more fuel efficient cars has led to a 12% fall in domestic energy use.

Renewable energy was only 5.8%  of the UK's energy generation in 2010. It had increased to 15.8% by 2013. Our two largest renewable energy types in 2013 were bioenergy and onshore wind. The renewable energy type that was used the least was solar, wave and tidal.

Fracking - Positives

  • It is profitable.
  • The drill holes are filled in after use.

Fracking - Negatives

  • 8 million litres of water is used up.
  • 3% of the gas is lost as it is extracted.
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Global Energy Supply

  • In the future the UK will become more energy insecure and will have to import more energy to reduce the energy gap between demand and supply.
  • The world's major consumers of energy are also major producers of energy; they are mainly the HICs.
  • Energy production is low in those countries where demand for energy is also low; they are mainly the LICs.
  • Lowest risk of energy insecurity: Canada, Russia, Middle East, Indonesia & Australia.
  • Highest risk of energy insecurity: Asia, Latin America & Sub-Saharan Africa.

Physical & Human Factors

  • P - The geology of an area determines how many resources are in the ground.
  • H - A country's economic development.
  • P - The country's location based on tectonic activity as you can exploit geothermal energy.
  • H - Innovative ways to extract resources like fracking.
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Energy Insecurity

Why is energy consumption increasing?

  • As countries develop, their demand for energy supplies increases. This is due to industrialisation and greater wealth.
  • An increasing population.
  • The increasing use of technology like computers. As quality of life increases so does the demand for vehicles, lighting and heating.

What factors affect energy supply?

  • Access to Technology: Better technology has allowed energy sources in remote areas.
  • Political Factors: They affect decisions about which energy source to exploit.
  • Physical Factors: The geology of an area determines the location and availability of fossil fuels.
  • Cost of Extraction & Production: Some energy sources are costly to extract.
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Renewable Energy Types

Biomass: wood, plants or animals waste burnt for power, cheap, renewable.

Wind: Either on land/sea, no carbon emissions but wind is variable.

Solar: Energy from the sun is used to heat water/generate electricity using photovoltaic cells.

Hydro: Uses the energy from falling water - constructing dams are very expensive and destroy environments.

Tidal: Changes in water level turns turbines. It can't generate electricity all day but can be reliably predicted.

Wave: Turbines are expensive and don't produce much energy in calm conditions, compared to horrendous conditions.

Geothermal: Water is pumped into the ground where heat turns it into steam which causes a turbine to turn.

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CASE STUDY: BEDZED, London & The Chambmontera, Per

  • Energy Conservation: Home & workplace (natural lighting); transport (use of public transport); demand reduction (encouragement to use less); efficient technology (increases the efficiency of machinery).

BEDZED, London

  • Location: Community of 82 houses.
  • Green Transport: Walking, cycling, reduced cars.
  • Sustainable: Affordable homes, green technology.
  • Features: Water recycling, renewable energy.

The Chambmontera Hydro-Electric Scheme, Peru

  • Chambamontera is in the Andes Mountains in Peru.
  • They needed a sustainable energy scheme as they had little/no electricity.
  • The micro hydro scheme is where the locals use the heavy rainfall to create electricity.
  • They have benefited by: improved school facilities, less need to burn wood for heat, reduced fire risk, improved healthcare (refrigeration of medicines).
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