- Created by: ccoatesx
- Created on: 14-03-19 08:29
Water use in the UK
75% of water use in the UK is used in industry.
It takes 10 litres of water to make one kg of pork.
The demand for food in the UK
The all-year demand for seasonal food:
- Consumers in the UK now want food all year round even though it may be seasonal in production, e.g. strawberries
- Local produce used to be the primary food source before supermarkets and fridges
- Seasonal fruit and vegetables in the UK are often imported from other countries
High-value food products = Agricultural goods with a high economic value.
These high-value food products come from places like Kenya and the Caribbean.
PROS FOR KENYAN FARMERS: Jobs are created, supplying wages for local people and from the wages taxes are paid to the governement. From this hospitals and schools can recieve funding.
CONS FOR KENYAN FARMERS: Less land is availble for locals to grow food in and growers can be exposed to dangerous chemicals. The crops may also need large amounts of water where water supply is poor.
Organic produce is expensive because:
- Yields from organic farming are usually lower
- Organic feed for animals can be expenisve
- Smaller quanities and longer distances raise the costs of distribution and marketing
Why did changes in organic sales occur?
- A greater public awareness for our health fuelled concern for eating food with chemicals in
Sales of organic food:
- People believe that organic food contains fewer chemicals and is healthier for their family
Food miles and carbon footprint
Food miles = the distance that food travels from the producer to consumer
* In the UK, food travels over 30 billion kilometers each year
Carbon footprint = Measures the impact your activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases they produce
How does importing food increase the UK's carbon footprint?
- Food is flown, driven, and shipped to the UK.
- Carbon dioxide is also produced when food is grown and harvested
What are the alternatives (to importing food?)
- Eating seasonal produce grown in the UK
- Limiting imported food to those we cannot grow in the UK
The advantages of buying products from a local farm shop: Reduces air miles and the UK's carbon footprint is reduced.
Agribusiness = Application of business skills to agriculture.
In the UK there used to be a lot of small farms run by families. This has changed.
Farms increase food production by:
- Increasing in size by buying land and draining wetlands
- Producing one crop in large quantities
- Using fertilisers and pesticides
Advantages of the trend towards agribusiness in the UK:
- Large farms have taken over small ones so they can reduce costs in using machinery across a wider area and increase profits
- Reducing costs of production means prices can be kept lower, benefiting the shopper.
The demand for water in the UK
England is facing water supply shortages by 2050 unless rapid action is taken to curb use and wasteage, the EA has warned.
3 billion litres of water are wasted every day through leakage.
The average daily water usage per person is 140 litres in England.
- Attracts 300,000 tourists a year, which boosts the local economy by £6 million.
- There is a conservation area, with red squirrels.
- The Kielder Dam created a ten kilometre long reservoir, holding almost 200,000 million litres of water, which was used to supply industrial North East England.
- Over 150 million trees were planted at Kielder, providing a valuable source of employment.
Eco.B: Jobs were made available during the construction phase and through maintenance of the dam wall.
S.B: The Calvert Trust provides activities for the disabled along with an orienteering course and water sports.
Enviro.B: An eco village nearby is powered by waste chips from the forestry process.
- One and a half million trees were cut down to make way for the lake.
- Displaced farming communities.
- Flooded a beautiful valley - an AONB.
Causes of water pollution: Hot water used for cooling processes in industry may be pumped into rivers. Sewage containing bacteria may be pumped into rivers and the sea
Effects of water pollution: 40% of rivers in England and Wales are polluted by sewage. Oestrogen in water is femininsing fish, and causing a low sperm count in humans.
Eutrophication: * Nitrates in fertilisers wash into the water course, through runoff and leaching. * Increased nutrient concentration makes the algae bloom, blocking the sunlight to the lower water. * The decaying matter in the water contains bacteria, causing anoxic water. * The fish then suffocate and die.
How is water quality managed in the UK?:
- Waste water treatments
- Green roofs - a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane. Filters out pollution in rainwater.
How is the demand for energy changing in the UK?
We use less energy now than in 1970 despite having 6.5 million more people in the UK. This is becuase: as we have industrialised we now use 60% less energy for industrial use. Energy efficient appliances and an increased awareness to save energy.
Why is the UK energy mix changing?
- The UK once produced enough energy to be self-sufficient.
- A decline in reserves of oil and gas now means the UK is reliant on imported fossil fuels.
- All coal-fired power stations are due to close by 2050.
We have stopped using coal because:
- It is no longer economically viable
- Gives off CO2
- Will be taxed due to its environmentally harmful nature.
Coal has been replaced by coal and gas with carbon capture. Gas is 20-30x cleaner than coal but it is still a fossil fuel that contributes to global warming.
Economic and environmental issues of energy produc
FOSSIL FUELS = No longer economically viable to extract coal from deep underground.
NUCLEAR = Could help the UK meet its CO2 emission targets. There are risks associated with storing and disposing of radioactive waste. New generation plants will be built and commissioned by 2050.
RENEWABLE = Offshore wind farms are good as there is more wind out at sea, and not as visually polluting. They are bad for wildlife and migrating birds.
HINKLEY POINT C = The first new nuclear power station to be built in the UK in over 20 years. Located in Somerset. Will provide low-carbon electricity for around 6 million homes. 25,000 employment opportunities. 1,000 apprenticeships. It will mae a majour contribution to the UK's more to reduce carbon emissions.
WALNEY £1BN OFFSHORE WIND FARM = Generate enough power for 600,000 homes. 189 wind turbines - after the Walney extension. Sitting in the Irish Sea, 19km from shore. Around 250 people will be employed in the operation and maintenance of the wind farm. It will support community and environmental projects in coastal areas of Cumbria and Lancashire.
The economic and environmental opportunities of fo
ECON Opportunities: Jobs are created in supporting industries providing equipment. Multiplier effect.
ECON Challenges: The coal left in the UK is deep underground and is no longer economically viable to extract. We have to import coal from other countries. Expensive to celan up. Former miners experience health problems which create a financial burden on the NHS.
ENVIRON Opportunities: Fossil fuels are very stable, not posing a risk to the environment when stored.
ENVIRON Challenges: Contributes to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Acid rain. Opencast mines cause visual and noise pollution, with dust that disrupts wildlife and locals.
The economic and environmental opportunities and c
Econ opportunities: Creates a considerable number of jobs in research and development. Once constructed, a cheap source of energy.
Econ challenges: The cost of constructing a nuclear power station is huge. Storing and transporting radioactive waste is very expensive. As is decomissioning old power stations.
Environ opportunities: Considered significantly cheaper than fossil fuels.
Environ challenges: Nuclear waste has to be stored safely for years to avoid contamination. If an accident occurs, it can have a devastating impact on the environment and people.
The economic and environmental opportunities and c
Econ opportunities: Jons have been created in the research and development of solar panels and wind turbines.
Econ challenges: Set up costs are expensive for wind, solar, and tidal. The visual impact can have a negative impact on tourism. Lack of correct weater conditions can reduce profitability.
Environ opportunities: The carbon emissions associated with the development of renewable energy are much lower than fossil fuels.
Environ challenges: Wind turbines have a negative impact on bird migration patterns. Roads constructed to reach wind turbines, damage environments. Turbines can affect TV and mobile phone signals.
The demand for energy in the UK (Fracking)
- A deep hole is drilled into the rock
- Chemicals, water and sand are injected at a high pressure into the hole
- This high pressure causes fissures in rock. Gas then flows out and is brought to the surface.
- Gas and flowback water are removed.
Fracking started at landmark Lancashire site in October 2018 was then halted after a 1.5 magintude tremor in Decemeber.
- Production of shale gas could lead to cheaper energy bills and create thousands of jobs.
- Increased revenue for the government could occur through the granting of licences.
- Fracking can contaminate water supplies with chemicals, and cause earthquakes.
- It requires a large quatity of water which could impact the locals water supply.
The energy gap
What is happening to the global demand in energy?
As a country becomes more developed, it consumes more energy. This is due to all the energy we use in our homes for lighting, heating, cooking and a range of household appliances.
The energy gap = the different between a country's rising demand for energy and its ability to produce that energy from its own resources.
- An increasing number of countries in the world are facing an energy gap
- The gap is being widened by the deliberate phasing out of fossil fuels
- There is a growing mismatch between distribution of energy consumption and production.
- An energy surplus gives a country huge geopolitical and economic power.
- They could then hold other countries ransom
A country that has a low risk of energy insecurity:
Norway has a low risk of energy sequrity because is has reserves of oil and gas in the North Sea. It's physical geography means it is able to generate large amounts of HEP. It also has a relatively small population.
Factors affecting energy supply
Three main reasons for global rise in energy consumption:
- Population growth
- Modern technology
Factors affecting energy supply:
- Environmental conditions
- Population growth
- Energy prices