Craik Watkins - supports elaborative rehearsal
Bower et al (1969) - being organised - participants = words. 2 conditions;
1 = Random
2 = Heirarchy (more words remembered)
Peterson and Peterson - Duration of STM (Trigrams)
Baddeley (1966) - encoding in STM - acousic - more sound than meaning
Baddeley and Hitch (1968) - Working model of memory
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) - Multi-store model of memory
Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) - supports multi - store model of memory ( seperate LTM and STM stores)
Murdock (1962) - Serial position curve - See if people could remember the end and beginning of a set of words than the middle in a recall test. (evidence for seperate STM and LTM
Miller (1956) - magic number - plus or minus 7
Research in more detail
Murdock (1962) - Serial position curve is evidence for the MSMOM , he found that when recalling a list of words, participants will remember more from the beginning and end of list than the middle. This uses LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS, AIMS (As explained above), EXPERIMENTAL HYPOTHESIS (participants will remember more at end) INDEPENDANT VARIABLE (the words asked), DEPENDANT VARIABLE (How many words are remembered).
Peterson and Peterson (1959) - To test how long STM lasts when rehearsal is used. Participants breifly shown a trigram (e.g TGH) and then were asked to count backwards in threes from a number. After intervals, participants were asked to recall the trigram and the trigram was repeated using different trigrams. Participants were able to recall around 80% of trigrams after 3 seonds. When the time was lengthened less was remembered. HOWEVER trigrams are artificial and cannot reflect memory in everyday life. Experimental method used (LABORATORY) shows the effect of time passing on recall.
Bower et al (1969) - Suggested that to increase levels of accuracy in memory, you had to be organised. Group of participants a list of words, firstly placed in a random order, then tested recall. Then he manipulated the IV and gave participants participants a list of organised words (heirarchy). Heirarchy = improved memory. Strengths --> organisation improves memory so supports research. Lab experiment (reliable, valid, can control variables), dont need many participants. Weaknessess --> Issue with design, same words were used. Order effects - they would know how experiment would work.