Research Methods


Repeated Measures Design

  • One condition - may be more difficult than another.
  • For Example: whether people remembered more in the morning than in the afternoon, give p's memory test and a diff one in afternoon.
  • However, one test may be easier than the other.
  • DV - due to extranous variables (easier test) rather than IV.
  • May guess purpose of experiment in 2nd test - effect behaviour.
  • For example: purposley doing worse in the 2nd so it appears they dont work aswell in the afternoon.
  • Conditions may affect performance (order effect)
  • May do better bc - less anxious
  • OR worse because of boredom of same test.
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dealing with limitations - Repeated Measures Desig

  • Make test equivalent - create 40 words and randomly allocate to 2 lists.
  • Use a cover story about purpose - prevent them guessing what its about.
  • Counterbalancing - tested first or second in equal amounts.
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Independent Groups Desgin

  • No control over participant variables 
  • For example : p's in group 1 may happen to have better memories than group 2.
  • 2X as many participants
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Dealing with imitations - Independent Groups Desig

  • Randomly allocate p's to conditions - theoretically distrubutes participant variables evenly.
  • MORE money and MORE time.
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Matched Pairs Desgin

  • Match p's on key variables - start with a large group of p's to ensure you obtain matched pairs on key variables.
  • May not control all p's variables - only match on relevant variables - others may be important.
  • For Example: memory experiment - might match on memory ability but may find out p's have had a programme to boost memory skills - should of matched on this. 
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dealing with limitations - matched pairs

  • Restrict matching variables - make it easire.
  • Conduct a pilot study - consider key variables.
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