Davidson (1993) - Benzodiazepines
A: To investigate if Benzodiazepines have an effect on stress
P: Performed an asessment of BZ usage as a treatment for 75 patients with social - anxiety disorder. Patients were randomly assigned to either the drug or the placebo treatment (dummy treatment with no clinical effect) for 10 weeks and the drug treatment was
F: The drug treatment was found to have an early sustained positive effect. 78% of drug patients improved, only 20% of placebo. Many drug patients reported side effects of unsteadiness, some forgetfulness and loss of concentration. 2 year follow up found a significant advantage in function among those treated with BZ drugs than a placebo.
Co: Suggests that BZs are effective in the short term and the long term
Cr: Did not take in to account that 20% of patients improved even though they only had placebo drugs.
Lau et al - Beta Blockers
A: Investigate the effetiveness of Beta-Blockers
P: Performed on a meta-analyis of studies using Beta-Blockers
F: Effective in reducing highblood pressure. Reduced the risk of death by 20% in patients with heart disease
Co: Suggesting they are effective as a lifesaver in some cases
Cr: Didn't take into account whether they helped to reduce stress. Could have been extraneous variables that effected whether they go better or not - such as they took up exercise or quit smoking
Kobasa - Hardiness Training
A: To investigate whether or not having a hardy personality affects stress levels
P: Tested 8,000 business executives using the Social Readjustment Scale (SRRS) to measure stress levels. Sick days were counted and comparisons were made between different workers.
F: Individuals with the same stress levels had different illness levels. Individuals with high stress levels and low illness scored high on the 3c's (Competition, Control, Commitment)
Co: Having a hardy personality does have an effect on stress levels, the more of a hardy personality you have, the less stressed you'll be
Cr: Kobasa is biased as the creator of the Hardy Personality, meaning the results may not be reliable if they had been manipulated
Jay and Elliot - Stress Inoculation Therapy
A: To investigate the effects of Stress Inoculation Therapy
P: Developed a videotape for parents of 3-12 years olds with leukaemia who were undergoing bone marrow treatment. One hour before treatment, parents were shown a film of a model parent employing self-statements, relaxation techniques and coping imagery rehersal. The parents then practised the skills.
F: Compared to parents recieving child-focused interventions, the SIT-treated parents showed significanlty less anxiety and enhanced coping skills
Co: This implies SIT to be an effective treatment for acute, short term stressors
Cr: Small sample means the results may not be generalisable