Introduction & Definitions

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Elen-F
  • Created on: 03-11-15 18:32


Aim: the purpose of the study

Hypothesis: a statement of what you believe will happen

  • Directional: a prediction that there will be a difference & states the direction
  • Non Directional: only states that there will be a difference
  • Null: states that there will be no difference
1 of 6


Independent: the variable which is manipulated

Dependent: the variable which is being measured

Confounding: variables which aren't controlled but may affect the DV

Extraneous: variables which may affect the DV but can't be controlled

Participant: individual characteristics/traits that may affect results

2 of 6


Quantitative: numerical data

Qualitative: non-numerical data (descriptive)

Operationalise: to change the format of a variable in order to make it measurable

3 of 6


Mundane Realism: how accurately an experiment resembles a real life situation

Generalisability: the extent to which results can be applied to other settings

Validity: the extent to which results back up a statement/hypothesis

Reliability: the extent to which an experiment produces the same results when repeated

4 of 6

Internal Validity

Did the IV cause an effect on the DV?

Were there confounding/extraneous variables which may have affected the results?

Did the research accurately represent real life or did it lack mundane realism?

5 of 6

External Validity

Can the results be applied to real life situations?

Ecological Validity: would the behaviours recorded in an artifical environment be the same in a natural setting?

Population Validity: do the results apply to everyone? A wide variety of participants ensure high validity.

Historical Validity: are the results outdated? Do they still apply in the modern day?

6 of 6


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Research methods and techniques resources »