- Created by: iiStevey
- Created on: 24-04-19 08:49
Types of Data: Primary VS Secondary
PRIMARY - Collected by the researcher themselves i.e. experiments / surveys / observations.
Primary Advantages & Disadvantages:
- Relevant Information / Validity
- Can Control methodolgy
- TIme Consuming
- Can be costly dependant on the methods used
SECONDARY - Data collected by other people & organisations.
Secondary Advantages & Disadvantages:
- Already gathered - less time consuming
- Usually cheaper to access sometimes even free
- Information may be outdated therefore inaccurate
- Questionable wether it can be applied
Types of Data: Qualitative VS Quantitative
QUANTITATIVE: Numerical, statistical information that is objective. Answers factual questions instead of giving reasonings.
Quantitative Advantages & Disadvantages:
- Best for representativeness and generalisability
- Broader study - greater number of subjects
- Harder to analyse and give reasonings
- Can't explore why
QUALITATIVE: Type of data that is focused around opinion, feelings and why something is happening. Complex data and harder to analyse. Subjective Data.
Qualitative Advantages & Disadvantages:
- Deatiled information that explores reasonings
- Based on human experience which gives better validity
- Longer process to analyse the data as it all varies due to subjective nature
- If not careful, researcher can have a negative impact on the results - behaviour
Positivism VS Interpretivism
POSITIVSM - Theory appraoch based on natural and factual causes - idea surrounds objectivity and positivists want statistical, quantitative data that reveals the truth.
INTERPRETIVSM - Approach which tries to see explanations from sujects perspective. They want Verstehen (Meaning) and qualitative data with reasons as to why something happened.
Preferred Research Methods: Positivist
- Offical Statistics
- Social Surveys / Unstructured Interviews / Questionnaires
Preferred Research Methods: Interpretivst
- Personal Documents
- Participant Observation
- Unstructured Interviews
- Attempt to accurately sample the target population - can be generalised.
- Stronger focus on validity over specificity, study of experiences is more important than the accuracy of the population.
- On a list, every nth person is picked - gets a variety of data.
- Divided into groups based on critea but you need to know the % of the characteristics.
- Sampling based on proportions in UK population e.g. age / sex / income / ethnicity
Practical / Ethical / Theoretical Issues
- Time (How long does the study take) / Money (Funding/Costs)
- Researcher Characteristics i.e. Does Researcher fit the group?
- Researcher Skills (Can they effectively conduct the research method)
- HARM - Effects on people studied / wider society / researcher.
- Legality / Immorality - Witness any illegal activity.
- Consent - Need full consent from participants.
- Anonymity - Participants identity needs to remain
- Quantitative / Qualitatitve
- Positivist / Interpretivist
- Theoretical Perspective
- Representative & Sampling / Validity / Reliability / TRIANGULATION
RESEARCH METHOD: Social Surveys
- Questionnaires with sets of questions that participants answer - Postal Surveys / Online / Face-To-Face Surveys. Can consist of open and close ended questions.
- Less time consuming to conduct but could take time to construct
- Cheaper research method especially if online
- Lower response rate - increase cost as may need to send out more
- Complete privacy if it isn't face-to-face / Can't harm - Can avoid question
- No informed consent - don't know who is actually answering it which can cause harm
- If close ended - provides facts which is positivist and quantitative
- No Verstehen - researcher imposes meaning - different to the participant
RESEARCH METHOD: Interviews
Interviews can be either structured or unstructured: STRUCTURED: Close ended questions, same order and questions - quantitative. UNSTRUCTURED: Open ended questions so participant can give own opinion - qualitative.
- Little previous knowledge required | In-depth so it's useful | Structured take less analysis
- Time, Money and Funding | Researcher Skills needed | Characteristics - Impact Answer
- Give participants informed consent - allowed to withdraw at any point - no harm
- Not full anonymity - researcher knows | Sensitive topics could cause harm.
- High level of validity - Qualitative data (Open-ended) | If structured - Quantatitve
- Most interviews are open ended so aren't positivist and representative (Small sample)
RESEARCH METHOD: Participant Observation
Observations are the action or process if closely observing or monitoring something or someone - usually monitor groups.
- Time consuming as need to be involved with group over a span of time
- Research is much more useful
- As long period of time it'll cost more to conduct | Researcher Characteristics
- Hard to record data
- Participants give consent as it's an overt observation
- Going Native | Harm to researcher & particpants | Illegal Activity
- Qualitative Data - Has verstehen - Interpretivist and larger amount of validity
- Not quantitative - Not representative as only able to study small sample
RESEARCH METHOD: Non-Participant Observation
Observation whereby the researcher doesn't get involve within the activities that the participants are conducting.
COVERT = Conceals fact they are researcher - No informed Consent OVERT = Particpants are informed of researchers and their intentions
- Minimal knowledge required and the research is useful
- Takes alot of time | Costly | Still need similar characteristics
- If overt then consent if given | Benefits society
- Could harm participants | No consent is covert | Legality - Crimes reported
- Validity as its qualitative and interpretivist - Only if covert
- Small sample - Representative? No Quantitative
RESEARCH METHOD: Secondary Sources
Data that researchers don't gather themselves - predetermined data that has already been researched by a previous researcher.
OFFICIAL: Comes from the government and other verified sources i.e. Census. UNOFFICIAL: Non-verified sources such as media and diarys.
- Less time consuming - good if can't find info | Usually free
- Needs to be current interest - is research avaliable | Is it useful to your research
- Won't harm anyone | Already consented | Didn't consent to new research
- Can be both quant and qual/positivist or interpretivist
- Dependant on what the secondary source is - Is it representative.
RESEARCH METHOD: Ethnography
Variety of research methods to provide in-depth, longnitudinal interpretivist research. Uses more than one method i.e. obserations, interviews - brings the benefits and drawbacks with them.
- Is useful as uses a variety of methods | Brings advantages dependant on methods
- Time consuming | Need Researcher Skills | Can be Costly
- Choice of research methods will cause the ethical advantages to vary
- Usually has an in-depth nature so harm to participants is more likely - depends on method
- Multiple methods but focus on interpretivist methods - qualitative data
- Doesn't provide quantitative data meaning it isn't positivism