Research and sampling methods

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Laboratory research

*Takes place in an artificial environment

*Experimenter has full control over independent and extraneous variables 

*Easy to replicate if needed 

*Can produce untrue behaviour via the artificial environment and demand characteristics

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Field research

*Conducted in the natural environment

*Independent variable still controlled, but extraneous variable not

*Participants reflect real life behaviour as real setting 

*May not know they're being studied so not influenced by demand characteristics

*Difficult to replicate due to extraneous variables

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Natural research

*Real life setting

*No influence over independent or extraneous variables

*Behaviour of participants is true 

*Used to investigate sensitive subjects like mental illness where it would be unethical to control any variables

*Time consuming and expensive


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Random sampling

*Everyone has a fair chance of selection

*Not biased

*Uses raffle method to pick participants at random

*Represents the whole target population

*Need a lot of resources and time

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Opportunity sampling

*Uses readily available participants

*Quick and easy to find people

*May not represent population wholly

*Could end up biased

*Anger some of the population who don't want to take part 

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Volunteer sampling

*Relies on people coming up willingly to participate

*People are happy with taking part 

*Inexpensive as you don't have to find the people, they find you

*Could end up biased if advertised in a place where only a small part of a population will see it 


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