Religous Studies - Ethics

The right to life
The use of medical technology
Personal responsibility
Social responsibility
Global concerns
Conflict

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The Right To Life : Abortion

Against: "Every human has a right to life" Exodus
"You shall not murder" Exodus
"Human life is sacred" Corinthians
"Life begins at conception" Catholicism

For: Women have a right to choose
Incapability of parents
Dangerous backstreet abortions would be performed
Freedom of choice

Alternatives
Financial and Emotional support from the church
Adoption
Counselling

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Euthanasia

Definition: The act of killing someone to help them, usually due to disability and lack of quality of life.

Active euthanasia- Doing something to end their life ie. Injection
Passive euthanasia- Withdrawing essentials like water or food
Non voluntary euthanasia- When someone cannot ask for euthnasia, ie. In a coma so someone else decides.
Voluntary euthanasia- When a person asks and wishes to die.

For: "Life is sacred" and therefore there should be quality of life.
"Blessed are the merciful" Mercy killing.
Freedom of choice
Choice to die with dignity
No point of living if you are miserable

Against: "Life is sacred" and therefore shouldnt be taken away - too precious
"Only god can give and take away life" John
"Do Not Kill" Exodus

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The Use of Medical Technology: Pregnancy Technique

AIH- Artificial insemination by husband.
AID - Artficial insemination by donor.
IVF- In vitro fertalisation, fertalisation outside of womb. 
Surrogacy - Fertalised egg placed into another woman.

For: "Be fruitful and increase"
"Blessed are the merciful" (Surrogacy)
A child could avoid being given a bad disease through AID ie. Brittle bones
No embryos are destroyed through IVF.
Infertility is sad and unfair and can cause misery for a woman.
A right to have children if not natural to them.

Against: "Only god can give or take away"
"Life is sacred"
"Life begins at conception"
"Children are a gift from God, not a right"
Children desperately need adopting

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Genetic Engineering

Embyronic stem cell cloning - Use of technology to create new genetical identical life. Taken from human embryos.
Gene therapy: The use of technology to developed new tissue cells that could be used to treat diseases. Taken from adult stem cells.
Hybrid embyros: Mixture of both human and animal tissue.
Designer babies- babies with gender and chareceristics chosen by their parents.
Saviour Siblings - A child conceived by IVF with pre implantation diagnosis to save the life of an incurably ill sibling through the use of the siblings donor blood.

For: "Blessed are the merciful" Theraputic Cloning and saviour siblings help people.
"Be fruitful and increase"

Against: "Children are a gift from God" No right to choose their charecteristics
"God made man in his own image"
"Do not kill"
"Life begins at conception"
Babies should be created out of love, "They will become one flesh"

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Contraception & Homosexuality

Contraception
For: You have the right to choose
Can prevent STIs unwanted pregnancies and abadonment of children and deaths, "Do not kill"

Against: "Be fruitful and increase"
"Go forth and multiply"
"Life begins at conception"
"Do not kill"

Homosexuality - Same sex partnership. Civil partnership is the legal registration for homosexuals.
For: Right to choose
Cant decide who you fall in love with
Homosexuality gives diversity to the world

Against: "God made Adam and Eve, Not Adam and Steve" Anon
Sex is between a man and a woman
Goes against ideals - Sex is to create children

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Marriage

Three ideals are Sex, Faithful & Lasting commitment and Companionship

Cohabitatian - A Couple living together and having a sexual relationship without being married.
Civil ceremony - A short ceremony in a registry office or somewhere with two witnesses

Sex outside marriage
For: "It is good to say unmarried" Corinthians
Everyone has  aright to choose
You can be faithful and commited without being married

Against: "Flee from sexual immortality" Cornithians
"You should avoid sexual immortality" Thessolians
It is better to marry than to burn with passion" Corinthians
The best love is permanant not temporary and casual

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Drugs

Stimulants - Caffiene, Amphetamines, Poppers, Ecstacy, Crack, Cocaine, Anabolic Steroids

Depressants - Alcohol, Valium, Glues, Aerosol, Analgesics- ie. Painkillers, Heroin, Codeine, Opium

Hallucinogens - Cannabis, LSD, Magic mushrooms, Ecstacy

Effects on the individual- Dependency, Addiction, Harmful health effects ie.Cancer, Side effects, Comedowns.

Family- Violence, Money strains, Neglection, Theft, Assault.

Society- Smoking, Alcohol and Overdose causes a lot of deaths, Costs the NHS a lot of money, Increase in crime rates.

Against- "Your body is a temple of God"
Salvation Army is completely against alcohol 100%.
For: Wine is used in the Last supper: "This is my blood", Jesus allows alcohol.

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Marriage and Divorce

Three ideals for marraige- Sex, Companionship and Faithful commitment
Civil Ceremony - Short ceremony in a registry office or somewhere with two witnesses present
Cohabitation - A couple living together in a sexual relationship without being married.

Sex outside marriage
For: "It is good to stay unmarried" Corinthians
Everyone has a right to make their own decisions
You can be faithful and commitment without being married
Against: "Flee from sexual immortality" Corinthians
"You should avoid sexual immortality" Thessolians
"It is better to marry than to burn with passion" Corinthians.

Divorce
For: Jesus taught forgiveness, "the forgiving father"
Against: Anyone who divorces his wife except for marital unfaithfulness causes her to be an adultress" Mt
To the married, i give this command, A wife must not be seperated from her husband" Corinthians

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Prejeduce and Discrimination

Prejeduce is judging someone and discrimination is acting upon that judgement

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Race
  • Disability
  • Relgion

Caused by inequality fear and ignorance.

References
The Good Samaritan
"You are all one in Christ"
"There is no diffrence between Jews and Gentiles, Slaves and Free, Men and Women."

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Global Concerns: Enviromental Problems

  • Pollution

Contamination of something. Due to car fumes, Disposal of nuclear waste etc.. Effects are climite change emission of green houes gases causing global warming.

  • Abuse of natural resources ie.Electricity

Includes overpackagings, electricity etc. Causes extinction of species and destruction of forests and grasslands.

  • Destruction of natural habitats ie. Forests, Soil Erosion etc

Due to deforestation. Effects are increase in greenhouse gases, Climate change, soil erosion.

  • Climate change eg. Can cause increase in death, water shortages etc.

Change in the average weather including etmperaturem rain snowfall etc. Effects are increase in deaths, Water shortages and more flooding, Reduction in the qualty of life.

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Responses To Enviromental Problems

Individual - Recycling, Stop using plastic bags, Dont leave taps running or appliances on, Use energy efficient lightbulbs, Loft and wall insulations.

Community - Walk or cycle, Dont use cars or planes, Buy local food produce.

National- Kyoto Protocal 1997, Stern Report, Earth Summi in Rio de Janerio 1992.

Christian Responses - "God saw the world and he likes it" 7 days of creation.
You have lives on earth inm luxury and self indulgence. You have fattened yourself in the day of slaughter" James
The Earth Charter - Respect Earth in all its diversity, Care for the community of life, Prevent harm to the Earth.

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World Poverty

Causes of poverty - Enviromental problems, Healthcare, Conflict, Bad Government, HIV/AIDS, Debt, Trade Barriers, Greed in MEDC.

Five Basic Needs - Food, Water, Health, Education, Work

Fairtrade is a non profit organisation from 1992 which is a food company that profits go towards poorer countries. They are teamed up with charities like: CAFOD, Christian Aid, Tearfund.

Short Term Aid - Emergenncy. Provides food, shelter, water and aid for health.
Long Term Aid - Development. Building water supplies, schools, shelters, businesses.
Raising Awareness - Leaflets, Posters, Books, Videos, Internet, TV, Schools, Churches.

Cycle of poverty -

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Christian Responses to Poverty and the Rich and Po

"Love your neighbour" Parable of the good samaritans
"The poor are blessed and the kingdom of heaven is theirs" Luke
"The poor are waiting for justice" Luke
"For when i was hungry, you fed me", "Whatever you did for the least of my brothers you did for me", "Then they will go away to eternal punishment but the righteous to eternal life" Sheep and Goats
"You are all one in Christ" Galations
"You fool! This very night you will die, then who will get your wealth?" Luke
"you recieved all good things while Lazarus recieved bad things and now he is comforted here and you are in agony" Luke
"Blessed are the merciful"

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Conflict: War

War is a large scale violent conflict, It is caused by:
Defence of their country, Defence of their beliefs, religion etc, Remove the leader of a government, Defence of a weaker country, Gain more land, Gain wealth, Power struggle.

The Just War Theory
Must be a last resort.
Must be serious threat.
Must be some chance of success.
Weapons must be used proportionately.
Decision to go to war must be made by legitimate authority
The ultimate goal must be restoration of peace.#

Pacifism - Pacifism is the belief that all violent acts are wrong and only peacful, non violent soloutions to difagreement should ever be used. eg. The Quakers.

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Terrorism and Nuclear Warfare and Proliferation

Terrorism - When groups use violence, or the threat of violence to achieve their aims rather than usign a democratic process. The violencee is often indiscriminate to create maximum fear. ie. 9/11

Caused by: Political, Social and Economic inequality. Economic problems and high unemployment. Religous extremism. Ethnic conflict.

Nuclear Warfare ie. Dropping the atom bomb in 1945 and The Arms race.

Profileration- The increase in the number of states that have the potential to use nuclear weapons.

No Christians or religous groups agree with the use of Nuclear weapons however some agree that they can be used as a deterrent to avoid war by scaring other countries. Quakers do not agree with any violence whatsoever.

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Crime and Punishment

Breaking of the law. Crime includes Acts of violence, Burglary, Vandalism, Theft, Sexual and drug offences

Causes
Economic Factors - Lack of financial resources, lack of educational oppurtunities.
Social Factors - Drugs, Lack of support for families, Inequality, Lack of leadership in communities, Low value placed on children or individual well being. Gang culture.
Family Factors- Dysfunctional family conditions. Substance abuse in the family. Violence in the family.

Aims of punishment
Retribution - Revenge for what has been done based on the Old Testament teaching, "an eye for an eye". A punishment proportional to the crime.

Reformation - To change someones behaviour for the better. Rehabilitation.

Deterrence - To put people of commiting crime.

Protection - To stop the criminal hurting anyone in society.

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Forms of Punishment

Imprisonment - For more serious crimes. Stops people committing similar crimes and is a deterrent but majority of prisoners re offend. No chance for immediate reform.

Fines - Is a good deterrent however has little impact on the rich but could be potentionally harmful to poorer families.

Probation - Gives the offender a chance to start to reintergeate into normal life with support but gives them a chance to reoffend immediately and it isnt a good deterrent.

Community Service - Deterrent and people are helping the community but it is a soft option of punsihment and there is no fear so no deterrent

The Death Penaulty/Capital punishment - Execution of a criminal by the government.
For:Offers retribution with murder, a life for a life. "An eye for an eye".
Against: No chance of reformation. "The forgiving father"

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