Chapter 2&19 Mary, mother of Jesus- Belief
State: within the 4th gospel she is never named and appears twice. Her apperance at the start of Jesus' ministry (water into wine) and at the end shows the very important attribute of belief.
Explain:- she is there at Jesus' first sign- tells him that there is no wine- showing her as observant and important to Jesus initiating his ministry
- being at the wedding with no wine left would destroy the hosts honour- the fact she asks him to act helps to spare the host of any embarrassment
-by taking the chance to get Jesus to start his ministry, she works as a catalyst
-Jesus refers to her as 'woman' which is a common title of respect
-clearly has authority at the wedding when she tells the servants to do anything that Jesus asks
-towards the end of his ministry Jesus tells Mary 'woman see your son', telling Mary to take the Beloved disciple as her son
-Mary is given a new "earthly" son as Jesus is in his kingdom
Relate- Genesis- Eve as the mther of all living, Mary becomes mother of all who truly believe
Sora, Debbora, Judith, Esther
Criticise- Grassi of such importance as a disciple and witness
Signpost-she is there at the start of his ministry and at the end, which shows persistent belief making her a true disciple
Chapter 4 Samaritan woman- Universalism
Explain:-In Judaism a woman was queen at home but had no status as someone's wife outside of it (was felt that women need to be kept pure)
-When Jesus knows about her life without her telling him (5 husbands) shows Jesus' omniscience and divinity
-Hottest part of the day 6th hour, she goes to draw water alone, showing her as a outcast, normally a social occasion for groups of women to go fill up water but she is excluded
-Water= spiritual life/eternal life (when he offers her water so she would never be thirsty again)
-Jews treated Samaritans as outcast- racially impure
-Jesus offers living water
Relates-Exodus 13:17-22 God provides water from the rock
Criticise- Barclay- "there is a thirst, which only the waters of eternity can quench and which only Jesus can satisfy"
Signpost- Universalism and Jesus' ministry
Chapter 8 Adulterous Woman- Forgiveness
State: It can be seen that the meeting between Jesus and the adulterous woman in the temple he is showing forgiveness which would be shunned by the audience of Jesus' time as it went against the Jewish laws and teachings such as Deuteronomy 22:22 which says that the man and woman should both be put to death if found in the acts of adultery.
Explain:- "woman caught in adultery"- witnesses-sin to see women naked- the act of adultery needs 2 people- where is the man?
-question asked by the crowd to Jesus traps him in a position whereby if he lets them kill her goes against one of the 10 commandments but then if he doesn't he almost condones her behaviour
-in the law Moses commanded that such women should be stoned- Jewish law at the time was capital punishment
-tells the group he with no sin cast the first stone, the oldest start to drop their stones followed by the rest are the wisest and realise they don't have the right to judge
-he tells her to "go now and leave your life of sin!- Jesus does not judge those on past actions-showing forgiveness
Relate:leviticus 20:10- the adulterer and adulteress shall surely be put to death
Criticise:- Jesus can't be judged by the jews but in this passage he is seenn to be judging
Chapter 11/12 Mary of Bethany- Worship
State:Mary is one of the few women to play a part of John's gospel, she is the sister of Lazarus and the sister of Martha.
Explain:-Mary of Bethany is often identified as Mary Magdelene
-She is the sister of Martha and Lazarus
-Mary, whose brother Lazarus now lay sick, was the same one who poured perfume on the Lord and wiped his feet with her hair, this was done at the anointing of Jesus
-In the Gospel of John, Mary appears between two events, the raising of Lazarus and anointing of Jesus
-Matthew Henry "what Mary says less makes up in the crying she does"
Relate:- Jews at the time would have been reminded of their ancestrol history..
-Kings 17:17-18- where Elijah restores the widows son
Criticise:-Tasker "she is a type of true christian worshipper"
Chapter 11 Martha of Bethany- Service
State:- it ca be seen when Jesus associates himself with Martha it shows the service/respect he gives to women which would have been likey to be questioned by many due to the way women were treated in the period
Explain:- Martha puts full trust in Jesus as the one who is able to save her brother
-Martha bows to Jesus feet recognising him as the messiah
-11:3 "the one you love"- meaning that the relationship must have been exceptionally close
-11:6 "he stayed", the need for Jesus is not specified, he's just needed for help but doesn't ask why, he just does. Therefore demonstrating his omniscient powers
-11:12-13 Judea is seen as a place of hostility and where danger occurs, however Jesus walks to the woman fearing no danger as he knows his time has not yet come
-11:20 "she went out to meet him" perhaps because as the older sister Martha was the hostess
Relates:- Elijah resurrects the widows son (1 Kings 17-24)
- Abraham sacrifices Isaac (Genesis 22:5-8) showing how God has the power to give and take life
Criticise:Tasker- one of J' main aims in his ministry was to gain the confidence of women in him
Chapter 20 Mary Magdelene- Equality
Explain:- she asks two angels where Jesus' body is- shows her love
-at Jesus' crucifixion with Jesus' mother, his mothers sister, Mary the wife of Clopas
-Refers to Jesus as Lord- shows her as a follower and believer
Jesus reveals himself to her first, highlighting the change of status of woemn from Judaism to Jesus' ministry- equality
-Rabboni- when she says this may be meaning that Jesus is a personal teacher
-crying shows her devotion and concern
-visits the tomb- may not have been able to see the tomb
Relates:- Ezekiel 37- the valley of dried bones
-1 Kings 17:7-24- God tells Elijah to retunrn the woman's son to llife and God did it
Criticise:- Tasker- assurance of faith is obtained only by personal contact with the risen Lord