Religious Education: Roman Catholic Ethics

Revision cards on all topics with relevant quotes and Roman Catholic teaching. 

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Ten Commandments

Definition        Prohibited       Breaking causes


1.   Have no other gods before me.                                                                             

  Faithfulness, loyalty to the true God and absoluteness in faith with definite trust.

         Superstition money magic power unnecessary authority sex before marriage.

         Trusting in somebody that is not God will lead to frustration.

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Ten Commandments

Definition        Prohibited       Breaking causes

You shall not take the Lord’s name in vain

Showing flawless dedication to the respect of God

Swearing in the name of God and profanity

Disrespecting God and will feel disloyal in faith

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Ten Commandments

Definition        Prohibited       Breaking causes

Keep the Sabbath day holy

Remember your faith ceremonially and show adherence to the church and practice

Allegiance to other events that are unnecessary during Church time

Sacrificing valuable time and losing prayer time

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Ten Commandments

Definition        Prohibited       Breaking causes

Honour your father and mother

Parents respected as they have responsibility of educating children in faith

Disobeyance and unsuitable/insufficient levels of respect

Will have a low self-valuation and will not be repaying your parents for their help

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Ten Commandments

Definition        Prohibited       Breaking causes

You shall not kill

Respect human life: killing threatens it. It is legitimate to defend life

Murder, abortion, euthanasia is forbidden

Prevented through imprisonment and prosecution through the state government

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Ten Commandments

Definition        Prohibited       Breaking causes

You shall not commit adultery

Chastity is a moral virtue being in control of human freedom and acting modestly

Infidelity sex outside marriage *********** prostitution ****- all undermine dignity

‘Anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has committed adultery with her heart

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Ten Commandments

Definition        Prohibited       Breaking causes

You shall not steal

The fair distribution of the world’s wealth and private property is prevented

Theft is forbidden and paying unjust wages forgery corruption

Undignified purchase that you are not entitled to against one who rightfully possesses

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Definition        Prohibited       Breaking causes

You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour

Don't lie and live truthfully part of public and private living

Bearing false witness, perjury, lying or distorting the truth

Undermining trust friendship and community

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Ten Commandments

Definition        Prohibited       Breaking causes

You shall not covet your neighbour’s wife

Protect human dignity self respect and modesty

Sexual thought and adultery

Lack of respect and dignity

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Ten Commandments

Definition        Prohibited       Breaking causes

You shall not covet your neighbour’s possessions

Property is respected

Greed envy and covetousness

Self-centred, selfish may become materialistic conscious and too attached

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The Beatitudes

Example          Definition

Blessed are the poor in spirit for theirs is the kingdom of heaven

·         Humility is the realisation that all your gifts and blessings come from the grace of God.

·         When we are devoid of pride when we are humble and humility brings openness and inner peace allowing submission and dedication to the will of God. To humble is to accept frail nature, repent and allow God to lead us to reform.

·         Pride brings misery, anger and the seeking of revenge especially when offense is taken.

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The Beatitudes

Example          Definition

Blessed are the poor in spirit for theirs is the kingdom of heaven

·        Mother Theresa- cared for the poor in Calcutta.

·         Sylvia Wright followed Jesus’ example and dedicated her life to the poor.

·        Monks and nuns make a vow of poverty. 

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The Beatitudes

Example          Definition

Blessed are the meek for they will inherit the earth

·         Refers to those who re humble and gentle and do not put themselves before others: ‘put themselves last and God will put them first.’

·         Jesus gave himself in the service of others.

·         People who are meek put the concerns of others before their very own and realise the dignity of the human person and are rewarded.

·         Mother Theresa

·         Father Damien of Molokai (worked with lepers)

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The Beatitudes

Example          Definition

Blessed are those who mourn for they will be comforted

  • ·         Humble and appreciate all gifts and blessings come from our trust in God we grow in love and gratitude for Jesus as the saviour. This can only produce a strengthened love for God.
  • ·         Innocent civilian killing in war systems 
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The Beatitudes

Example          Definition

Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be filled

  • ·         Desire for religious or moral perfection- satisfaction only found through God.
  • ·         Oscar Romero stood up for rights of poor in Salvador. 
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The Beatitudes

Example          Definition

Blessed are the merciful for they will be shown mercy

  • ·         Being merciful is being ‘God-like’, showing love and forgiveness- Lord’s Prayer ‘forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us.’
  • ·         Nelson Mandela imprisoned fought against apartheid and forgave those who kept him prisoner even when he was innocent. 
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The Beatitudes

Example          Definition

Blessed are the pure in heart for they will see God

  • ·         Purity of heart is attitude of being committed and dedicated to God- thoughtless outward signs are not good enough. To be just and fair in dealings with others.
  • Mother Theresa dedicated to God’s ministry. 
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The Beatitudes

Example          Definition

Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God

·         Shalom means peace, prosperity, happiness and fulfilment- the reconciliation of all divided people. Christians sent by God to bring people divided by conflict back together. Jesus taught all to be peace with God, brothers, sisters and all community and was the ultimate peace maker.

·         Desmond Tutu fought against injustice and he still works to promote 

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The Beatitudes

Example          Definition

Blessed are those persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven

  • ·         Followers may undergo false accusation mockery and hardships. Jesus highest example with his suffering in Gethsemane and throughout the passion.
  • ·         Oscar Romero
  • ·         Martin Luther King
  • ·         Maximilian Kolbe 
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The Beatitudes

Example          Definition

Blessed are you when people insult, persecute and say all kinds evil against you because of me. Rejoice and be glad because great is your reward in heaven for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you.

  • ·         Persecuted due to faith share in Kingdom of God- path to holiness is hard
  • ·         James Mawdsley is a human rights activist campaigning for democracy in Burma
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·         Possession of an insufficient amount of items or emotional capacity to live life to the full

·         Paradise is a world where resources are readily available for all, equality- parable banquet

Causes of Poverty

·         Natural Disasters/ war

·         Disease

·       Bad governments= unfair trade and population problems

·         Debt

·         Lack of education, low employment 

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Poverty quotes

 ‘The earth has enough for everyone’s need but not enough for everyone’s greed.’ Gandhi

·         Live in sufficiency and knowledge that survival relies on only possessing essentials. Abundance of unnecessary goods is greedy.

‘Poverty is like punishment for a crime you didn’t commit.’ Eli Khamarov

·         No choice over economic situation they are in, although many disagree with statement as poverty could be brought on by reckless living.

‘God has made earth and all that contains for all to share. The earth’s goods divided fairly and this right of everyone to a just share comes first. It is the basic right of every human being.’ Pope Paul VI

·         Same accessibility to the earth’s goods as people of richer backgrounds. 

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Our duty to poverty

·         We are inextricably linked to each other as God’s children. Duty to help those who aren’t as well off as us through aid in order to create an equilibrium of wealth worldwide

·         Christians are taught (scriptures) to help the poor. Christian value that has been passed through tradition. Commandment: ‘treat thy neighbour as thyself’ need for equality.

·         Justice: right to fair and equal treatment

·         Stewardship: humans are given the task of being responsible for and looking after needy

·         Compassion: we should feel pity for others and actively want to help

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RC Teaching on Poverty

·         ‘The joys and the hopes, the grief and the anxieties of the people of this age, especially those who are poor in any way afflicted, these too are the joys and hopes the grief and anxieties of the followers of Christ.’ Gaudium Et Spes, 2nd Vatican

·         Rich nation’s moral duty to help poor nation’s direct aid reforming international financial economic institutions. 

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Bible teaching on Poverty

·         Son of Man comes in all of his glory, all the nations will gather and he will separate putting sheep on right goats on left like shepherd

·         The King will say to those on right take your inheritance: when hungry you fed me, thirsty and you gave me something to drink

·       Stranger and you invited me in, clothes you clothed me

·         Sick and you looked after me

·         I was in prison and you visited me

·         Lord when did we see you hungry, thirsty, stranger, clothe you, sees you sick/visit?

·         King reply: ‘Whatever you did for the least of these siblings of mine, you did for me.’

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Poverty responses

·         Donations,charity events, volunteering at shops, donate old clothes, organise community events, provide free events, sporting sponsorship events, free events, sporting sponsorship events, Christmas shoe boxes, harvest collection, waste water, trips to homeless shelters, gap years, fair-trade purchasing, less cheap clothes, missionary work, charity Christmas cards, charity gift catalogues. 

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CAFOD: Catholic Agency for Overseas Development

·         Our vision is a world transformed to reflect the Kingdom of God

·         The rights and dignity of every person are respected

·         All have access to basic needs in life

·         Women and men share equality in shaping their societies and our world

·         The gifts of creation are nurtured and shared for all for the common good

·         The structure that shape people’s lives are just and enable peace

·         Compassion, Hope, Dignity, Solidarity, Partnership, Sustainability, Stewardship

·         Enact Gospel values: concern for neighbours future generations

·         Serving common good enable everyone develop equality

·         Human dignity and  integrity of creation

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·         Financial partnership between producers and sellers and consumers promotion equity

·         ‘RC teaches that paying unjust salaries is stealing,’ ‘Business turns people into things to be bought and sold is immoral,’ Catechism Catholic Church

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Parable of the sheep and the goats

·         Judgement Day: nations of the world gathered before him seated as king on a throne

·         Jesus would divide everyone into two groups: sheep and goats one right one left

·         Right group: eternal joy with God ‘I was hungry and you fed me’

·         Group asked: ‘when did we feed you’ Jesus: ‘when you fed my brothers you fed me’

·         Left group: not in God’s presence as they failed to help him

·         Christians believe there is final judgement when faith shown by how men and woman have acted will be test of going heaven. 

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Sanctity of Life Quotes

·         Human life is sacred because from its beginning it involves the creative action of God and it remains forever in a special relationship with the creator.

·         ‘So God created human beings making them to be like himself. He created them male and female.’ Genesis

·         God called Jeremiah and said: ‘I chose you before I gave you life and before you were born I selected you to be a prophet to the nations.Jeremiah

·         You created every part of me; you put me together in my mum’s womb. Psalm

·         N.T St.Paul’s letter to Christians at Corinth: ‘Surely you know that you are God’s temple and his spirit lives in you. So if anyone destroys his temple God will destroy him. For you are holy and you are his temple.’ Corinthians

·         Humans are living image old. Life is entrusted to man as a treasure must not squandered. Human person incomparable value.’ Pope John Paul II

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·         Artificial (condom), Natural (rhythm of menstrual cycle)

·         RC: ‘fertility gift married couples should see it as mission to transmit human life.’

·         For: sexual relationship enjoy without fear pregnancy, insufficient financial funds, genetic disorder, space the births, increase world population

·         RC: to express love between partner and give life to children- creative love of God, making love sign of sacrament of marriage, contraceptives separate creative function of intercourse and is unnatural, contraception dangerous to society

·         LIFE: provider crises pregnancy counselling, information support, education, spokespersons

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·         Procured Abortion: deliberately killed and removed from the womb

·         RC: ‘Human life is sacred; all men must recognise that fact.’ Pope Paul VI

·         ‘Life protected utmost care from moment of conception abortion infanticide abominable crimes.’ 2nd Vatican Council

·         1974 Declaration procured abortion: proper respect for human rights, movement women’s right frees women from injustice is not an excuse for abortion as it denies another person the fundamental right to life.

·         Reasons why people ask for abortions are serious product of many sorrows miseries, every man and woman with feeling and certainly Christian may be ready to do what he can to remedy them.


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Law on abortion

·         Abortion up to 24 Weeks: risk to physical mental health of woman, can select foetus if there is multiple pregnancy, risk to physical or mental health of existing children

·         Up to term: probability of grave permanent injury to woman’s physical or mental health, substantial risk of severe physical or mental disability in foetus, risk of life to the woman.

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For Abortion

·         Just a clump of cells mother who is actually living should come first

·         Cruel to make a woman go through the process of childbirth if she doesn’t want the child

·         A teenager girl emotionally not ready may not be physically mentally ready

·         Woman who ***** not have to cope with product of **** inside her

·         Abortion of disabled foetus is in best interests of everyone

·         Not right for baby born into poverty

·         No child should be unwanted

·         Women have right to decide what happens in their own bodies

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Against Abortion

·         Support given to young mothers enable cope and abortion may result guilt

·         Medical problems as serious as those resulting from childbirth at a young age

·         Wrong to punish a child conceived by **** for sin of its father- child adopted

·         Humans no right pass judgment on quality of life of disabled foetuses

·         No child need be unwanted adoption is an option

·         Right over our own bodies is not absolute autonomy. Women’s emotional involvement means they won’t be able to make the wisest decisions 

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IVF Artificial Insemination

·         Extract eggs from woman and give hormone injections for mass egg creation.

·         RC: proper place conception children is within sexual relationship

·         Children are gift and blessing from God

·         Science makes something possible not necessarily make it right

·         All human beings right to life conception new techniques respect that right

·         No spare embryos

·         Sperm and ovum belong to couple third party donation is adultery

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For/ Against IVF

  • compassion for couples who are infertile
  • form of medical treatment restoring natural function
  • ensures justice for infertile couples
  • resulting child will feel wanted and loved extensively because parents went to great lengths to obtain them
  •   unnatural playing God
  • sperm donor may separate 
  • tensions between donor cases as only one is genetic parent, implanted by mistake into wrong woman
  • treatment is expensive
  • genetically compatible siblings to save life of another could make younger child feel they are not wanted
  • couple split up and woman wants another baby but father objects. 
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·         Euthanasia comes from Greek words meaning good death

·         Involves someone else who perform killing or provides means of death

·         Compulsory (people decide), Voluntary (person decides)

  •  RC TEACHING: Human beings god’s creation life sacred

·         Breaks commandment thou shall not kill

·         Duty to help others when they suffer not at any price

·         Killing someone who is ill is murder and playing god to say when life should end

·         Hospices offer care from terminal diseases to accept it with dignity

·         Pain relief may be given as side effect life is shortened but patient must be sane for death

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For Euthanasia

·         right to chose time to die

  • euthanasia more compassionate than allowing suffering
  • pain can’t be controlled so euthanasia is humane
  • death easier to face if we know it is painless dignifies
  • suffering of relatives is lessened
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Against Euthanasia

  • unnecessary in view of advances in palliative care
  • hospices skilled care, impossible to be sure that it is really what someone wants
  • if someone makes a decision what happens if they change their minds
  • last weeks are helpful for relatives and friends to understand
  • unscrupulous relatives putting pressure
  • relationship of trust between doctor and patient threatened
  • implies that life is disposable, concerns about voluntary to involuntary euthanasia differences
  • it’s possible for a mistaken diagnosis
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Examples euthanasia

Dianne Pretty

  • Motor Neurone disease and so desired death
  • Husband petitioned but did not get what Dianne wanted
  • Deontological argument viewpoints on right to die has been released by courts following her death.

Kelly Taylor

  • Lippel-fiel syndrome postpone her case of right to die constant excruciating pain with two severe congenital conditions

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Retreats- Princess Alice Hospice

  • Clinical expertise in specialiset palliative care
  • Socal work team for bereavement support education desparatment for an extensive educational programme
  • clinical team doctors nurses social works chaplain spiritual ccare physicotherapists occupational therapists and complementary therapists
  • alternative to euthanasia 
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Christian attitude to sickness and healing

·         Christians may question sins and wrong-doings in relation to punishment, it is important to realise that God will not punish you but will alleviate the symptoms for the sufferer in accordance to the Bible’s teaching about Jesus’ assistance.

·         Themes from Luke: healing paralysed man

·         Christians show concern for sick by following example Jesus and serving him by looking after poor and sick they meet.

·         Church show concern for sick by visiting them bringing comfort through sacrament of Eucharist, praying asking God to take care of them in the hour of their death, help sick return to health, show love to the sick, and celebrating all sacraments with them. 

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Anointing of the Sick

NT Background:

  • 'Is any one of you sick? He should call the elders of the church to pray over him and anoint him with oil in the name of the Lord and the prayer offered in faith will make the sick person well; the Lord will raise him up. if he has sinned he will be forgiven.'
  • Sacrament gives spirtutal stength and peace of mind 
  • Enables acceptance of illness as a way sharing in Jesus' suffering
  • Refusing to let evil dominate their lives opportunity for spirital growth
  • Feel God is close and cleansed of sins
  • Giving friends relatives spiritual strenth 
  • Giving all those involved comfort
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Anoint of the Sick Sacrament

  • Greeting and blessing with Holy Water reminder of grace at baptism
  • Confession: 'I absolve you' ability to accept sacrament
  • Reading from the Gospel Homily readings gospels recipient hear word
  • Litany prayers of intercession sick and family
  • Priest lays hands on sick person and power of holy spirit is called
  • Oil is blessed chrism
  • Anointing the hands anointing on the forehead 'through this anointing may Lord in his love and mercy help you witht he grace of the Holy Spirit. may the Lord who frees you from sin save you and raise you up.' 
  • Final prayer for the sick
  • Lord's prayer and blessing 
  • Viaticum and communion 
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Dying and the afterlife

  • ressurection of Jesus means eternal life with God is for all believers
  • soul survives after death reflected in funeral service

Funeral rites:

  • church door priest to greet mourners
  • coffin sprinkled holy water baptism person died and rose with Christ
  • white sheet placed on coffin symbolising baptismal garment
  • requiem mass
  • prayers said commited to care of God
  • coffin is sprinkled again with holy water
  • cemetary

Life after death

  • eternal life with God/ purgatory- purification to enable further growth
  • St. Paul life resurrection afterlife new spiritual body
  • Creed belief in resurrection and after life
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Christian Reconciliation

  • Sin: offence against God
  • Mortal sins: sins so serious can be forgiven only through reconciliation
  • Venial sins: lesser sins that everyone commits
  • Forgiveness: act of pardoning people for what they have done
  • Penitent: someone who is sorry for what he or she has done


  • Before confession: examination of conscience ask Holy Spirit to help them
  • Confession: penitent kneel grille
  • Sign of cross with priest 'Bless me father for I have sinned. My last confession was x ago and these are my sins.' 'I am sorry for the sins that I cannot now remember.' 
  • 'Oh my God because you are so good i am very sorry that I have sinned against you and by the help of your grace I will try not to sin again Amen.' 
  • Priest says prayer of absolution sign of cross is made 'I absolve you from your sins in the name of the father and the son and the holy spirit. Amen.'
  • Penance
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Parable forgiving father

  • It is never too late to be sorry and there is no limit to his forgiveness
  • A father two sons younger son can't wait until father is dead for inheritance
  • Father gives him share and he leaves home and spends all money
  • Severe famine hits country and son is forced to get a job (swineherd)
  • Pay so poor hungry miserable and so returns back home apologizing
  • Father saw him and filled with compassion runs and kisses him
  • Father tells servants to bring best robes and kill prize calf
  • Older son sound of merriment and is furious
  • Father begs him ' My son you are always with me and everything I have is yours but we had to celebrate and be glad because this brother of yours was dead and is alive again he was lost and is found.' 
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Parable of the talents unmerciful servant

  • man owed ten thousand talents master told him sell wife children
  • servant begged: 'be patient with me I will pay back everything'
  • master took pity and cancelled debt let him go
  • servant's servant one hundred denarii- grabbed him and told him pay back what you owe me
  • servant fell to knees and begged him 
  • servant refused and man was thrown into prison until he could 
  • master: 'you wicked servant i cancelled all that debt of yours shouldn't you have had mercy on your fellow servant.'
  • master tortured him
  • this is how heavenly father will treat you unless you forgive brother from  heart
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  • punishable by law infliction of a penalty to ensure law is enforced
  • vandalism, drug, boredom, revenge

Why do we punish? 

  • Protection: criminal cannot continue to offend 
  • Deterrence: deter or stop future occurrences
  • Retribution: criminals pay for the harm they have done, 'getting own back.'
  • Reform: enable criminals to leave life of crime, comprehend basic rules of civil society and correspond to the requirement of safeguarding the common good. legitimate public authority has the right and the duty to inflict punishment proportionate to the gravity of the offense.  
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Christian view on punishment

  • OT: 'If anyone injures his neighbor, what he has done must be done to him: fracture for fracture, eye for an eye, tooth for tooth. As he has injured, so he is to be injured:' retribution or revenge is legitimate.
  • Criminal must make reparation for his crimes. Commandment's initial intention was to limit revenge, criminal made restitution they are clear guilt.
  • Capital punishment: Deuteronomy punishing by death is a type deterrence. 
  • 'Everyone will hear about it and be afraid to act so arrogantly.' 
  • Christians believe they follow example of Jesus: NT: 'The authorities that exist have been established by God'- Romans 
  • Government of a country has been put there by God- given duty to punish

Importance of forgiveness:

  • Even criminal receive God's forgiveness if sorry and repents, person allows Holy Spirit into life will be transformed to be more like Christ- rehabilitation.
  • Jesus: 'I have come to call sinners not those who already think good enough'
  • Lord's prayer: 'pray for those who sin against us.' 'Love your enemies.'
  • We can forgive others because God has forgiven us.
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Capital Punishment- FOR/AGAINST


  • RC supports death penalty as last resort to protect society. 
  • 'Life' imprisonment does not mean prisoners are there for lifetime
  • Method of deterrence
  • Proper retribution: death penalty only punishment for murder life for life
  • Improved forensic science makes the execution of innocent unlikely
  • Economic sense- imprisonment is costly
  • Kinder to the murder


  • Prison escapes rarer careful discussion before parole
  • Whereabouts of murder known so society is already protected
  • Death penalty does not deter statistics and rise in Britain is just trend
  • Death penalty seem like revenge injustice not appropriate retribution
  • Forensic science is only as good as the scientists using it- human error
  • Death penalty only costly because of appeals and legal costs
  • Reformation is best way of achieving true justice
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Biblical teaching on retribution


  • Jesus said: 'eye for eye tooth for tooth.' But I tell you, do not resist an evil person. if someone strikes you on the right cheek turn to him the other also.


  • 'If anyone injures his neighbor whatever he has done must be done to him: fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth. As he has injured the other so he is to be injured.'
  • Some Christians believe in capital punishment: 
  • Bible sets down death penalty as the punishment for a number of crimes
  • Saint Thomas Aquinas argued that the peace of society is more important than the criminal's reformation.
  • Pope: 'The death penalty is cruel and unnecessary-killing is wrong by killing.'
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Prejudice and discrimination

Prejudice: making up your mind about someone when you have no fact

Discrimination: prejudice into action treating people badly on judgments

Racism: is a form of prejudice against another race or ethnic group

  • Jesus was victim as Jews were hated by Gentiles and Samaritans- not pure 
  • Jesus makes Samaritan an hero who stopped to help an injured Jew- story
  • A Samaritan also only one returned thank Jesus from a group of 10 lepers healed by him. 
  • Christians should not tolerate people of all races but show love to all. 

 Good Samaritan: Jew Jerusalem Jericho road mugged left to die- 

2 Jewish temple officials crossed other side of road didn't help

Samaritan stopped bandaged man took to inn and repaid for man's care. Any more needed he would reimburse on way back.

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Roman Catholic teaching on prejudice/discriminatio

  • The church and racism Pope John Paul II 'every human being created in image of God who offers salvation to everyone of all nations.'
  • Church: wants to change racist attitudes
  • asks God open people's hearts appeals to moral religious senses
  • place in which people can be reconciled and wants more initiatives together
  • 'Every person is my brother or sister.'

All one is Christ Galatians:

  • St.Paul letter to Galatians Christian community racial gender and social distinctions meaningless: 'no difference between Jews, Gentiles, Slaves, Free, Men, Women. You are all in union with Christ Jesus.'


  • Head Civil Rights Movement- non violent peaceful protest influenced by faith
  • 'I have a dream that one day all God's children will be able to join hands.'
  • Equality: every human being is created in God's image
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Christian Marriage is

  • A lifetime permanent love
  • An exclusive faithful love the two people are completely faithful
  • Life-giving
  • 'Be fruitful and increase in number.' Genesis
  • 'For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife and the two will become one flesh. No longer two but one.' Mark
  • 'They should love each other as Christ loves the church.' Ephesians
  • 'man have own wife, each woman own husband. The husband fulfill marital duty to wife and wife to husband. Wife's body belong to her husband as well in the same way backwards.' Corinthians
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Christian Marital rite

  • Welcome and purpose of marriage: people who come are witnesses and have a duty to support the couple, marriage is a God-involving sacrament and is lifelong
  • The Liturgy of the Word: sacrament of christian marriage, dignity of wedded love, grade of sacrament and responsibilites of married people are highlighted
  • Questions: ensure couple have undertaken marriage freely will leave open to children
  • Consent of exchange of vows: loving lifelong supporting faithful
  • 'I take you lawful wedded wife/husband.'
  • 'To have and to hold from this day forward.'
  • 'For better for worse'
  • 'For richer for poorer'
  • 'Sickness and in health'
  • Exchange of rings: 'sign of my love and my fidelity.'
  • Prayers and nuptial blessing: God's blessing on marriage, unite couple, companions to another, children and happy old age.
  • Signing of the register
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Beliefs and teachings on family

  • 'Children, obey your parents- for this is right. Honor your father your mother with a promise that you may enjoy long life on Earth. Fathers, do not exasperate your children bring them up in the training and correction of the Lord.' Ephesians
  • 'Thus the home is the first school of Christian life.' Catechism
  • 'Parents regard children of God respect as human persons. Child not owned to one but gift. Supreme gift of marriage is a human person. Child not considered property.' Catechism


Nuclear family: husband and wife living in home with children of marriage

Extended family: wider group includes aunts uncles grandparents

Reconstituted family parents marry again after divorce or death

Family responsible for education, atmosphere, social virtues, heart of family

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Sexual relationships outside marriage

  • Catholics see sexuality as one of God's most precious gifts to us; we should respect our bodies because it is the temple of the Holy Spirit (Corinthians)
  • Chastity is viewed as a gift from God and all baptized Christians are called to practice chastity as it is something celebrated in the control of sex instinct

Sex before marriage is wrong because:

  • against teachings in bible carries risk of pregnancy
  • contraception is used goes against teachings
  • cheapens and trivializes something precious
  • encourages lust and exploitation rather than love and commitment

Non christian views:

  • sex is casual exploration of hormonal responses
  • be faithful to person who you are with now serial monogamy and divorce is common
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RC Teaching on Divorce

  • Christian marriage only ended death 'what god joined man cannot separate.' annulment only way out and can be declared if:
  • did not fully understand marriage vows forced into making them
  • did not consummate the marriage have sexual intercourse
  • one of the partners lied about having children
  • nullity means that the marriage did not happen and was invalid

How christians put their belief about marriage into pracice:

  • marriage care guidance to help couples stay together
  • relate non Christian but operates in a similar way to marriage care

Against divorce

  • 'God joined together man cannot separate' Mark
  • 'Whoever divorces wife marries another adultery.' Mark
  • 'A wife not separate from husband she vows she must reamin unmarried or else be reconciled to the husband. Same way around for husband.' Corinthians
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For Divorce

  • 'Anyone who divorces his wife except for marital unfaithfulness causes her to become an adulteress and anyone who marries the divorced woman commits adultery.'  Matthew- this can be interpreted in different ways

RC Church teaches:

  • 'Thus the marriage bond has been established by God himself in such a way that a marriage concluded and consummated between baptised persons can never be dissolved.' Catechism of catholic church 
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  • the calling of God to a particular path, a change of lifestyle influenced by faith, a feeling that God is calling to a ministry often involving sacrifice.

Parable of the talents:

  • Man on journey gives three of servants differing sums of money according to their ability. The first gets 5000 gold coins, second 2000 and third 1000
  • Expected to use the money to make profit. On return master summons servants.
  • First two doubled money given third buried in ground. Excuse was master was a hard man and was afraid of losing the money
  • Scolded him for laziness

Using one talent develops into another due to the acceptance of open opportunities. Utilize your talents so that you are exposed to opportunities that will allow you to acquire new ones. 

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Rite of Ordination

  • Presentation: candidate is called forward to be presented to the bishop.
  • The Examination: bishop questions candidate about responsibilities obedience to bishop and celebration of the sacraments and the priest promises to fulfill them. 
  • Prostration: candidate lies on the floor sign that he is in submission to God
  • Consecration: ordained by bishop laying on of hands and by prayers- an ancient sign of the conferring of authority on someone and also a sign of presence of Holy Spirit: 'they prayed and laid their hands upon them.'
  • Prayer: bishop give as a prayer of thanks to God priesthood is a Godly gift
  • Investment: new priests invested with the stole and chasuble (Eucharistic garments of office show that the wearer is a priest.)
  • Anointing: priest's hands with oil as with Christ, the hands are anointed to bless, consecrate and sanctify.
  • Mass: bishop presents him with the paten and chalice and the priest assists the bishop in celebrating Mass. The paten and chalice are symbolic of duty as ministry of the Eucharist 
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Role and work of the priest

  • Roman Catholic priests are ministers of the Church. Only men can be priests
  • Men receive Sacrament of Holy orders to ordain them to be ministers
  • They are answerable to the Bishop and take a vow of obedience to Bishop
  • Vow of celibacy they will not have sexual relations, get married or family
  • They have a vocation not to become married but to serve the community
  • The priest administers sacraments like Baptism the Eucharist and marriage
  • Leads prayer and other forms of worship in the Church and other places
  • Pastoral care of parish by visiting those who are ill and proclaiming gospel
  • Giving advice both in sacrament of reconciliation and informally
  • Being a servant to Christ and his Church by putting the needs of others 1st
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The role of a deacon

  • permanent deacons are allowed to be married men but can never be priests
  • deacon serves people of Christ by assist bishops in celebrating sacraments
  • giving out holy communion and assisting the priest at blessing marriages
  • proclaiming the gospel preaching and taking funerals
  • the involvement in social and charitable works alongside the church 

Monks and nuns:

  • poverty: which means that they own no personal possessions
  • chastity: which means absolute sexual purity
  • obedience: to the rule of the order and to the abbot or mother superior
  • contemplative monk/nun: describes enclosed monastic orders totally devoted to prayer and study
  • apostolic monk/nun: describes monastic orders that combine prayer and study with active service of the community
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Should women be allowed to be ordained as priests?


  • Jesus chose only men as his disciples and the Church has applied this
  • St.Paul's teaching states that women are not to lead worship
  • Problems in Anglican church left denomination didn't agree to females
  • Men and women are essentially different
  • Eradicates need for nuns


  • having women as disciples would not be realistic in Jesus' time as they were considered secondary in society but in modern day Christianity, change is imminent
  • Paul's teaching inconsistent other passages 'no difference men and women.'
  • Stand has to be made and if some don't agree start somewhere. not all people agreed with abolishment of slavery but if we waited until all agree nothing would be done.
  • women have a unique contribution to make
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Should priests have to remain celibate?


  • Jesus himself was never married, interfere with total consecration to God
  • Shows priest's total commitment to Christ and his Church
  • It is a challenge to love at the deepest level and incorporate love for all
  • Marriage provide distractions from priestly duties- priest and a married man would conflict


  • Jesus' disciples had wives families and marriage not an issue in Church
  • More people would respond to God's call to the priesthood
  • priests would offer better advice and support to marital problems experience
  • no reason why two areas of life should cause conflict
  • many married people have jobs that are demanding in terms of commitment
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Laity: men and women called to live active lay lives supporting their church in ways

The calling of lay people:

  • Witness- share in Christ's priestly office: being a Christian should show in all aspects of life, happy and loving Christian family, supporting worship
  • To teach- share in Christ's prophetic office: developing people's faith, duty to Evangelize (preach the gospel), support children and adults in their faith journey and make their opinion known to other Christians.
  • To lead- share in Christ's kingly office: participate kingly function Christ- lay people participate various ministries at service of community including:
  • parish councils, pastoral care, good management of parish finances. 
  • To ensure they are guided by a Christian conscience in every activity


  • Youth Group, Society of St Vincent de Paul, CAFOD, Guild St Martha
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Causes of War

  • Gain or increase power and are fought as form of revenge to assert views
  • Some wars have political goals, religious wars can be fought for defensive reasons they may be a response to acts of aggression

Consequences- beneficial:

  • Freedom from an occupying power and removal of corrupt government

Consequences- detrimental: 

  • Death- most modern wars the death are of innocent civilians
  • Injury many more millions are injured
  • Refugees and created
  • Mental illness caused by traumatic experiences
  • Kidnapping brainwashing training of child soldiers
  • Disease and famine
  • Destruction of relationships, way of life, the economy and infrastructure
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Types of weapon and warfare:

Conventional, Nuclear, Biological and chemical

  • countries defend the usage of nuclear weapons as they are deterrence 
  • countries owning nuclear weapons less likely to be attacked retaliation
  • very threat nuclear weapons pose means that countries are unlikely to use
  • multilateral disarment: cutting the amount by negotiation
  • unilateral disarment: involving a country independently abolishing nuclear
  • Nuclear proliferation (the increasing number of countries developing nuclear weapons) is a major concern with fears that irresponsible governments or terrorists could obtain such weapons.


  • Unlawful, indiscriminate violence, attacks variety of reasons, redress injustice, to assert political religious beliefs overthrow a government
  • attacks want to implement fear justification for tourism is that it is the only way to remove injustice and it is condemned 
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Just War and beliefs on War

St Thomas Aquinas:

  • War must started controlled authority of state or ruler
  • Must be a just cause attack because they deserve it
  • War fought promote good avoid evil peace and justice restored
  • Must be last resort and all other ways of solving must have been tried
  • Proportionality innocent civilians not killed


  • Matthew Gospel: 'Blessed are peacemakers for they shall be Sons of God.'
  • 'If someone strikes you on right cheek, turn to him the other also.'
  • 'Put sword back in its place, all who draw the sword will die by the sword.'
  • Catechism: 'evils injustices we must do everything to avoid War.' 
  • Pope John Paul II: 'most barbarous least effective way solving conflicts.'
  • Quaker Peace: 'utterly deny outward wars fighting with weapons.'
  • MLK: 'hate cannot drive out hate: only love can do that.'
  • Mahatma Gandhi: 'an eye for an eye only makes the whole world blind.'
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Pacifists believe war violence is wrong, these are acts against God's will:

  • Campaign for nuclear disarmament (CND) organisation against nuclear war and they believe that countries should spend more money on jobs, healthcare, education etc. 
  • Pax Christi: international Christian peace making movement that started in Catholic Church. 

Violence is: 

  • Wasteful, indiscriminate (it is hard to limit deadly effects to those guilty)
  • Sexist, Unjust, Destructive, A vicious circle- it sets off a spiral of violence

Non-Violence is: 

  • Humane, Creative, A civilian method, Voluntary, Radical, Dignifying
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Excellent, concise notes, on a huge amount of pages. Very good indeed.

Natalie Simon


Isn't that a contradiction? Concise notes...on a huge amount of pages. Jolly good but I bet you aren't sitting this exam. 



Lots of notes, and yes they are concise! The are clear and to the point with no uneeded inf. Thanks

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