Religious education revision cards unit 1

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  • Created on: 11-08-14 14:02

How can a religious upbringing lead to God?

The following things may lead to a belief in God;

  • Prayer
  • Church
  • Faith School
  • Parents enforce belief
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Design argument:lead to a belief

The design argument argues that the universe is far to complex to have happened by chance and therefore must have been designed. Everything has a purpose.

For example: if someone found a watch, they would be amazed and curious. They would assume it had been designed as it is dependant on everything coming together at the right time. It must have had a clever designer. The universe is complicated, the only person capable of designing it is God.

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Design argument: lead to non-belief

  • The world is too evil.
  • The world is chaotic and therefore cannot be orderly and planned
  • Scientists have evidence for the big bang theory.
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Causation argument: lead to a belief?


  • Everything happens for a reason.
  • Universe couldn't occur by chance.
  • First cause couldn't have occurred by chance.


  • What caused God?
  • Why would God cause this?
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Science and the Origin of the World

Big bang: An explosion caused the universe to begin expanding without any outside power.

Chaos theory: The belief that a minor difference means major change. If you pay attention you will see everything has a chaotic pattern. We live in a non-ordered but perfect universe.

Evolution: Everything resulted from one thing, God did not create life uniquely. There is evidence to support this.

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Religion's response to science origin explanations

  • God used evolution to create life.
  • The six days of creation in the bible were not literal but merely symbolic stages.
  • Science says 'how' the world came to be. The bible says 'why'.
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Unanswered prayers: leading to non-belief?

Does God even care? - the world is full of suffering.

Unanswered prayers cause people to  reject God or question their beliefs.

Athesists may feel that if a loving god exists he would answer peoples prayers.

Many experience pain in their lifes and those of their friends and family, and it seems God doesn't do anything about it.

Some atheists see suffering all over the world and thousands praying to ask for God's help, yet it makes no difference, therefore God can't be real.

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Christians response to unanswered prayers

Sometimes God answer is no (for example if the prayer was selfish) This is hard to accept but some will try to understand and grow closer to God.

Some believe their answers are answers but not in the way they expected.

Some believe whatever they are not praying for is it part of God's plan.

God is not there to grant whatever prayers a Christan asks. He only answers those that help him fufill his plan for the world.

People cannot possibly understand the mind of God.

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The problem of evil and suffering

God cannot be all-good, all knowing and all-powerful.

God and evil cannot coexist, Evil does not exist, therefore God cannot exist.

Religon's response to evil:

Adam and Eve disobeyed God- As a result evil occurred.

Evil and suffering is a test from God.

Free will, evil is a result of the choices people make

Suffering was a part of God's plan.

Evil allows people to follow Jesus's example and go good.

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How does media affect belief in God?

TV programmes/soaps such as Eastenders present religion as limiting and those who follow it obsessive. Sometimes Religion is shown positively. 

Example one: Dot cotton from Eastenders is very involved in her church,she mentions religion at any given opportunity and often looks down on those who doesn't do what 'god wanted'.

Example two: Songs of praise represents unity, happiness and love.

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Why Christians believe in Life after Death.

Protestants believe the soul gets judged by God and then they get sent to heaven/hell because Jesus told a thief on the cross he would go to heaven that day.
Evangelical Protestant believe the body and soul stay in the grave until judgement. They believe this as Jesus rose from the dead.

Catholics believe the body is resurrected and the soul is immortal, Those who don't confess their sins go to purgatory or hell. Those who do confess do to heaven. As Jesus will come back and reunite the body and soul.

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Muslims belief in Life after death

Muslims believe the angel of death takes the soul between the moment they die and judgement. On judgement day they will be resurrected. At judgement two angels will open a book if their name is on the right they they go to paradise, if it is on the left they go to hell.

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The effect life after death has on Christians

  • Christian's will be judged so they live by the rules of the bible.
  • Jesus rose. They believe if they do good they will be rewarded and rise.
  • It offers them comfort. Knowing they may see a love one again, 
  • It helps explain the purpose of suffering.
  • Afterlive gives people hope.
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The effect life after death has on Muslims

When muslims try to cross the bridge those who go to hell will fall. 

Heaven is a beautiful garden.

Hell is full of fire and smoke.

Muslims try to live a morally good life so they can go to paradise, they believe those who suffered will recieve compensation.

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Non-religious for believing in LAD

Paranormal activity:

Near death experience- Patients that died for a short period, claim to leave their body or see a bright light. To some this is prove of the afterlife.

Ghosts- Physical appearence or feeling the presence of those who have crossed over,

Contacting the dead- Mediums claim to contact the dead.Seances occurs and many people believe they have sucessfully done this. 

Reincarnation- People believe the soul is reborn, people experience deja vu and memories from the past.

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Non-belief in life after death

No evidence:

  • Mediums can trick people
  • We should not believe in non-scientific things
  • The body decays, how can you live again?
  • Life after death is impossible- you are either alive or dead.
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Media and life after death

Soaps offer info on matters displayed in a laidback environments.

Documentaries often highlight widespread views on a topic.

However; some may be biased and may influence someone to a particular view.

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Nature of abortion

The removal of a foetus from the womb before it can survive independently. Abortion is allowed up to 24 weeks. 


It affects woman or family's health or baby was severly handicapped.

Arguments concerning abortion:

  • Abortion is murder
  • Mother should be able to chose 'pro-choice'
  • Child has the right to live 'pro-life'
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Christian belief towards abortion

Christian's belief in the 'sancity of life'. 'You shall not commit murder'

Conservatives believe in right to life.

CoE: Only when it is the lesser of two evils if it occurs as soon as possible. 24+ it should only occur if the baby is disabled or unlikely to live.


When did life begin?

Santity of live is broken in war - why not abortion?

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Muslims towards Abortion

Life is a sacred gift. 

Life begins when ensoulment occurs at 16 weeks. However some say this happens at 40 days.


It is the lesser of two evils eg. mother is dying.  As without a mother there would be no foetus. The mother has responsibilities and family.

Abortion may be allowed between 7-16 weeks

Allowed if pregnancy is the result of **** or incest


It is because pregnancy wasn't planned or if the parents are afraid.

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Euthanasia:is the painless killing of the terminally ill.

FOR: Right to die painlessly/with dignity

Doctors can focus on those who may recover

Relieves family of financial cost

AGAINST: Sancity of life

Some may be pressured

Cures may be found

Those who assist have to live with the guilt.

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Christian attitudes to Euthanasia

  • They believe in Sancity of life
  • Only God can take life, nobody else has the authority.
  • Euthanasia could be used for evil

Some are not as strongly opposed.

  • God intends a good quality of life, however everyone has the right to live.
  • Euthanasia might be the most loving thing
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Muslims and Euthanasia

Life is a sacred gift from Allah and we should not interfere, he chooses how long we live.

There is no such thing as a life that's not worth living. 'Destroy not yourself'

Allah is pleased when you take care of the sick.

Some do not agree with Euthanasia but agree with withholding medical treatment.

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The UK is changing views on...


  • Marriage is less common.
  • Woman no longer depend on men
  • UK society sees divorce as acceptable
  • Cohabitation is popular


  • Church has less influence
  • Family morals have declined
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The UK is changing views on...


  • People are more open minded
  • Christian teaching has less influence

Multi-Faith Marriages:

  • Increased immigration
  • More acceptance
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Christian attitude to sex outside marriage

Sex is about love and commitment. 

The bible only allows sex within marriage.

Children outside marriage has unstable lives.

Promiscuity highers chances of STDs

Adultery breaks vows

However some say if you are in a long term relationship forbidding sex may ruin the relationship. The bible is old-fashioned.

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Muslim attitude towards sex outside of marriage

Sex must not occur outside marriage.

Upon reaching puberty males and females are seperated.

Muslims should be married as: 

Prophet Muhammed was married.

Marriage increases the value of prayer and forgiveness.

Sexual desire is a gift from God, couples are encourged in marriage to fufil that desire and breed.

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Christian attitude to divorce

Roman Catholic: No divorce, Jesus said that remarriage is adultery. Marriage is sacred, you cannot marry in a Catholic Church.

Annulment is accepted if: 

  • If you did not understand what you were doing
  • If you were forced
  • If marriage isn't consumated
  • If one isn't baptised.
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Other Christian attitudes to divorce

Protestant: Divorce is allowed if adultery is comitted. People make mistakes and relationships can break down. God can forgive sins. With God's forgiveness you may find happiness with a new partner. You can remarry in a church.

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Muslim attitudes to divorce

Divorce is permitted occasionally but not encourged.

Divorce is granted if one couple leaves Islam.

Husband must announce divorce three times over three months.

During this time the couple must live together without sex to avoid pregnancy, this gives them a chance to reconcile. This does 

The husband is financially responsible for the wife until she remarries. 

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Christian teachings on family

Christians see family as very important for bringing up children and teaching them what is good.

Parents should teach children, and children should respect parents, children are a gift.

Christian churches offer support and encourage young to be Christians.

Family unit is important and faith-schools are preferred. 

Christians should support the elderly.

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Muslim teaching on family

Family is at the heart of the community. Family is the way muslim life is best protected.

Marriage is expected.

Mother teaches what is forbidden, and the father takes sons to the Mosque

Extended family is also important as it means greater love, stability and support.

It is an honour to aid the elderly.For Muslims this is a sacred action which should be done with kindness and respect.

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Christian attitude to homosexuality

It is against Christian teaching because:

  • God created man to be marriage.
  • Same sex marriage cannot produce kids
  • It is not good for society as it undermines family.
  • 'Do not lie with a man as one lies with a woman.'
  • Homosexuality is a sin
  • Some will not let homosexuals be members of church
  • Some accept it and believe God made them that way

Catholics believe:

Homosexuals should remain celibate.

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Christian attitude to homosexuality

Although law is more accepting, churches are divided.

Some preach against it, whereas others thing it is natural and accept it to some degree.

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Christian attitude to homosexuality

Although law is more accepting, churches are divided.

Some preach against it, whereas others thing it is natural and accept it to some degree.

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Muslims attitude to homosexuality

Muslims believe homosexuality is a grave sin and in some countries is punishable by death.

One Hadith says ' kill one who is doing it and also kill the one who is alone to do so.'

Homosexuality threatens the stabilty of Islam. As it can be seen as basis for gender role reversal.

Homosexuality is chosen, anyone can be straight.

Some argue the Qur'an condemns homosexual lust, not love.

Some claim it's impossible to be gay and a good Muslim.

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Christian attitude to contraception

  • Catholics say all sexual intercourse should lead to the possibility of contraception.
  • The purpose of marriage is children.
  • Sex is to procreate
  • Contraception can lead to promiscuity

Although many disagree:

  • Some belive contraception in marriage helps plan a family.
  • Children are a blessing but christian's should still be responsible.
  • It is acceptable if parents are ill or financially unstable.

Condom is acceptable since sperm and egg do not meet so conception does not take place.

The coil and morning after pill are not acceptable as it is equal to abortion and is unacceptable.

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Muslims attitude to contraception

  • Some Muslims oppose contraception completely.
  • Others accept it if the mother is in danger or if the family will suffer
  • Contraception is better than abortion
  • Procreation is a religious duty
  • In some Shi'ah Muslim countries contraception is taught to the young.
  • Islam allows a lot of flexibilty on teachings on contraception.
  • Contraception may encourage promiscuity.
  • Sterillisation and Vasecomy are forbidden.
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