Religious Revision: UNIT 2

Matters of Life and Death - CHRISTIAN BELIEFS

Why Christians believe in life after death

  • Believe that after death their body stays in the ground and the soul goes to God for judgement.
  • Those that have been good will go to Heaven.
  • The souls of sinners will go to Hell.
  • Catholics believe in purgatory and that the body will be ressurected - idea that souls live on after death is known as IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL.

PROTESTANT EVIDENCE

  • Jesus told a thief on the cross that he would be in heaven one day.
  • The Church teaches that all Christians, dead and alive, belong to the Church.
  • Some Christians believe that the paranormal (i.e. ghosts and mediums) is evidence of the afterlife

EVANGELICAL EVIDENCE

  • Jesus' body was raised from the dead.
  • The creed (St. Paul) "I believe in the ressurection of the body and everlasting life"

ROMAN CATHOLIC EVIDENCE

  • Ressurection of Jesus
  • Teaching of the New Testament e.g. The Book of Revelation
  • Teaching of the Catechism of the Catholic Church

SOME PROTESTANTS believe that there is no Hell.

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Matters of Life and Death - The effect of belief i

THE EFFECT ON CHRISTIAN LIVES

  • "We should try to live within the guidelines of the Bible and the Church because we will be judged by God"
  • Heaven offers comfort when our loved ones die
  • We must try to live a good life and treat others as we would like to be treated
  • The afterlife shows that we should try to repent and to forgive
  • We can cope with suffering when we know Heaven awaits us

HOW MIGHT CHRISTIANS RESPOND IN THEIR LIVES?

  • CONFESSION- repent for their sins
  • PRAYER - praying more regularly and commuincate more frequently with God.
  • DOING GOOD WORK - because they know God is watching them, they will try to live life how he wants them to by helping others.
  • CHRISTIAN TEACHINGS - they will follow God's commandments and the example of Jesus through "treat others how you would like to be treated"
  • VOCATION - dedicate their lives to God through jobs such as a nurse/doctor or helping others priest/minister/nun/monk.
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Matters of Life and Death - MUSLIM BELIEFS

Akhirah = life after death (MUSLIMS)

THEY BELIVE THAT...

  • The authority of the Qur'an.  The Qur'an states that we came from Allah and that we must return to Allah.
  • Surah II and 56 teach that those who live a good life will go to al'Jannah and that Allah is powerful but also merciful.
  • The teaching and practice of the Prophet (the Sumnah)

JUDGEMENT

  • The Qur'an and Shari'ah law teach that Muslims will be judged by Allah and their actions will determine their afterlife.
  • Islam teaches that the good will be rewarded and the bad will be punished.
  • The Qur'an teaches that God's judgement is final.

EFFECT ON THE LIFE OF A MUSLIM

  • All Muslims try to follow the teachings of the Qur'an and Shari'ah law
  • Follow the example of the Prophet Muhammed and try to be a good Muslim
  • Act the way Allah wishes
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Matters of Life and Death - NON-RELIGIOUS BELIEFS

NON-RELIGIOUS REASONS FOR BELIEF IN AN AFTERLIFE

NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES

  • Reported by patients pronounced dead for a short time.
  • Describe leaving their bodies and seeing themselves outside of their body.
  • Reported seeing dead relatives/a bright light.

PARANORMAL ACTIVITY

  • Refers to unexplained events that have a spiritual cause.
  • Ghosts are thought to be spirits of the dead - can be a physical presence or a numinous feeling.
  • Mediums claim to be able to contact the dead.

REINCARNATION

  • The belief that a person's soul is reborn into another body or form after death.
  • An idea believed by Sikhs and Hindus but also by non-religious people because of memories from the past.

OTHER REASONS WHY

  • The idea of death is difficult to deal with.
  • Belief in an afterlife seems fairer
  • Sometimes people feel their loved ones who have died are still with them.
  • That those who led a good life should be rewarded and those who have not should be punished.
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Matters of Life and Death - Non-belief in life aft

EVIDENCE

  • There is no evidence if an afterlife - no one has ever returned to prove it exists,.
  • Mediums and others who will try to prove there is an afterlife are tricking people.

SCIENCE

  • Science expalins EVERYTHING in our world and we should not believe in things that are unscientific.

HUMANS ARE MORTAL

  • When a person dies their body decays so how can there be anything else?
  • Life after death is impossible - we live and then we die.
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Matters of Life and Death - Abortion

An abortion is the removal of a foetus from the womb before it can survive.

WHEN DOES LIFE BEGIN?

  • At fertilisation - when the egg and sperm meet?
  • When the fertilised egg is implanted into the womb?
  • When the foetus is developing in the womb?
  • When the foetus is capable of living independantly of the mother?
  • At birth?
  • At some other point?

THE UK ABORTION LAWS:

- 1967 Abortion Act

  • Abortions must be agreed by two doctors.

ABORTION IS ALLOWED UP TO 24 WEEKS IF:

  • There is any mental or physical risk to the mother.
  • The existing children would suffer or be at risk.
  • The child born would be severly disabled.

ABORTION IS ALLOWED AFTER 24 WEEKS IF:

  • There is risk to the mother's life.
  • The baby will be severly deformed.
  • There would be riso of serious physical or mental injury to the mother.

ARGUMENTS AGAINST ABORTION (PRO-LIFE)

  • Life begins at conception.
  • An embryo has the potential to be a human and should have the RIGHT TO LIFE.
  • Even disabled children have the right to life.
  • Adoption is an alternative
  • SANCTITY OF LIFE = ONLY GOD GIVES AND TAKES AWAY LIFE

ARGUMENTS FOR ABORTION (PRO-CHOICE)

  • Women should have the right to choose what happens to their body.
  • In cases of ****, abortion should be allowed.
  • It is KINDER to allow abortion if the child will be severly disabled.
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Matters of Life and Death - Christian attitudes on

Christians may hold different views on abortion, although most will not support abortion because of the "sanctity of life"

SANCTITY OF LIFE ARGUMENT

  • This is the belief that life is scared and belongs to God.

"So God created man in his own image" - Genesis 1:27

"Your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit..." - Corinthians 6:19

"You shall not commit murder" - Exodus 20:13

ARGUMENTS AGAINST ABORTION

(Catholics and Evangelical Protestants)

  • Abortion is viewed as murder.
  • Life is a sacred gift from God.
  • God has a plan for every human being.
  • All life has value even if a child may be born disabled.
  • Life begins at conception.

ARGUMENTS FOR ABORTION

  • Jesus taught about compassion towards others.
  • We cannot be sure life starts at conception
  • In cases of **** or incest, it is the kindest action.
  • Medical technology allows us to see if a child has any severe disablities.
  • Abortion is the best choice if the mother's life is at risk.
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Matters of Life and Death - Muslim attitudes on ab

SANCTITY OF LIFE = Life for Muslims is sacred and a gift from God. Abortion takes away a life and is therefore wrong.

ENSOULMENT = Life begins when the soul has entered the foetus at 120 days.

"Whoever has spared the life for a soul, it is as though he has spared the life of all people.  Whosoever has killed a soul, it is as though he had killed all of mankind" - Qur'an 5:32

WHEN IS ABORTION ALLOWED?

  • The health of the mother may be at risk - the foetus would not exist if it was not for the mother.
  • The mother's life is established and she has responsiblities to carry out.

DIFFERENT MUSLIM VIEWS ON ABORTION...

  • Some allow abortion in the first 6 weeks.
  • Believe they should choose what happens to their body.
  • An unplanned pregnacy is not a reason for abortion.
  • Allowed if the pregnancy is a result of adultery
  • Mother's life is in danger.
  • Allowed in cases of **** or incest.
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