- Undo all the religious changes made since 1529.
- Restore traditional Catholic practices and beliefs.
- Re-establish religious houses.
- End clerical marriage.
- Secure a long-term future for Catholicism in England.
- Parliament passed the first Act of Revival which undid all of the Edwardian Reformation/
- Mary gave up her title as Supreme Head of the Church.
- Royal Injunctions were issued, which reintroduced Catholic traditions in England, such as holy days.
- Parliament passed the Hersey Laws after it was promised that the former monastic lands would not be returned to the Church.
- The second Act of Revival was passed which repealed all religious change approved since 1529.
1555 - the persecution of Protestants begins
In 1555, John Rogers, a biblical translator, was the first Protestant to be burned at the stake. In total, almost 300 Protestants were persecuted during Mary's reign, including that of Bishops Ridley and Latimer in 1555, and Cramner in 1556.
Why did Mary persecute Protestants?
- She was determined to re-impose Catholicism by burning 'heretics' whom she believed had been corrupted by the Protestant faith.
- She was a victim of her Father's reformation.
- The greatest concentration of Protestants was in the South-East, near London.
- Spread fear.
Was Mary successful in re-establishing Catholicism
- Mary's Counter-Reformation is seen as a temporary divergence in England's march towards Protestantism.
- Protestantism had firmly been established in England during the Edwardian Reformation, making it nearly impossible for Mary to fully restore Catholicism.
- She only reigned as Queen for five years, and she left no male heir.
- Mary's policy of persecution, coupled with her unpopular marriage to Phillip II of Spain, ultimately caused Catholicism to be associated with intolerance.
- The Elizabethan Settlement of 1559 put England firmly on the path towards embracing Protestantism.