god and globalisation in india
. Globalisation has has created huge benefits such as scientifically educating , urban middle class in indea , working in IT , pharmaceuticals and biotechnology.
.Gobalisation is not making people become less religious. 5% said their religiosity has declined and 30% said they had become more religious.
.Nanda declines the idea that their religiosity is a defensive reaction to modernisation and westernisation.
capitalism in eat asia
. Recently china had become a major global industrial power.
.The sucess of capitalism in east asia has led to sociologists to argue that religion has played a role similar to the one of calvinism in the develpoment of capitalism in the 16th and 17th century.
. Gordan redding 1990 - the spirit of capitalism among the chinese have values that encourage hard work , self dicipline , frugaity , a commitmant to education and self- improvement.
. The belief system is similar to that of the protestant ethic , it leads to economic productivity and the accumilation of capital.
pentecostalism in latin america
. weber - protestantism is necessary to promote economic development and raise a society out of povery.
Pentecostalism in latin america acts as a functional equivilant to protestant ethic. It encourages the development of capitalism.
Pentecostalism demands a self denying way of life that enphasises personal decipline and hard work.
However , berger argues that religioys ideas alone could not be enough to produce economic development. Natural resoucrces are also needed.
pentecostalism - global and local
. In the last five years christianity has globalised itself by expanding out of Europe. First into south America then to Africa. David lehmann 2002 discusses the two phases of expansion.
. In the first phase , christianity accompanied colonisation and was imposed on the indigenous populations by conquest , often forcibly suppressing local religions.
.In the second phase , over the last century or so it has spread because it gained a popular following. For example by 2000 there were 80 million pentecostalists in brazil alone.
fundimentalism and cosmopolitanism
. Anthony Giddens - fundamentalists are traditionalists who seek to return to the basics or fundamantals of their faith.
They beleive that in the literal and infallible truth of scripture that it provides all answers to lifes important questions. They beleive that they way they see life is the correct and only and and refuse to have contact with others that disagree.
Giddens links fundamentalism with cosmopolitanism , cosmopolitanism is tolerant of the views of others and open to new ideas.
However , although fundamentalists do not like modernity , they use modern methods to express and spread beliefs.
- internet and email , televangelism and the 'electronic church'.
responses to postmodernity
zygmunt Bauman 1992 sees fundamentalism as a response to postmodernity.
Post modern society brings freedom of choice and hightened awareness of risk. While some embrace the new freedom others are attracted because of its truth and certainty.
manuel castells 1998 distinguishes between the two responses to postmodernity.
. Resistant identity - a defensive reaction of those who feel threatened and retreat into fundamentalist communities.
. Project identity - the response of those who forward looking and engage with social movements such as feminism and environmentalism.
criticisms of responses to postmodernity
They distinguish too sharply between cosmopolitalism and fundamentalism ignoring 'hibrid' movements.
They are fixated on fundamentalism ignoring other important developments including how globalisation is also effecting non fundamentalists such as cathlocism.
Giddens lumps all types of fundamentalism together ignoring important differences between them.
Gddens description of fundamentalism as a defensive reaction to modernity and ignores the fact that reinventing tradition is also a modern reflexive activity.