religion and the individual

A LEVEL  religious studies contemporary society religion and the individual

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religion and the individual

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effect of personality

pratt (1924)

  • personalities drawn to religion are those who are dominated by guilt and shame.


  • 2 types of personality

-> intrinsic= religion is very real and take belief seriously

-> extrinsic= religion= means to an end


  • converts have childhoods affected by unhappy childhoods
  • converts feel safe and secure with religion
  • however, soon leave after a period of time
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effect of gender


  • christian- closer to god than men
  • women=god=loving, comforting, forgiving.
  • men=god=powerful,planning, contolling.

lowenthal (2000)

  • jewish&muslim men more religiously active
  • christian&hindu women more religiously active

erikson (1958)

  • men= see god in the world
  • women=see god inside themselves

reich (1997)

  • women value social aspect
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argyle 2006

  • religious paricipation= high= 14 year

                                 =low  = 15/16 years

  • many return to parents religion later on in life.

kuhlen and arnold 1944

  • belief in literal truth of bible  12y=79% 15y=51%  18y=34%
  • belief in god   12y= 82% 15y= 78% 18y= 74%


"it is sometimes believed that the elderly possess some deep wisdom and dignity. from observation of the very old, this is not always the case."

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