RELIGION AND SOCIETY: ENVIRONMENTAL AND MEDICAL ISSUES

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Global Warming - Causes

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT - BURNING OF FOSSIL FUELS PRODUCES CARBON DIOXIDE - PRODUCES BARRIER IN ATMOSPHERE - HEAT FROM SUN CAN GET IN BUT CAN'T GET OUT - EARTH TEMPERATURE RISES

ALWAYS BEEN THERE - NECESSARY FOR LIFE ON EARTH - HOWEVER SCIENTISTS PREDICT THAT AS COUNRIES LIKE CHINA ARE DEVELOPING, WE WILL BE PRODUCING UP TO TWICE THE CARBON EMISSIONS ON 2050

NATURAL CLIMATE CHANGE - EARTHS CLIMATE ALWAYS BEEN CHANGING - WARMEST CLIMATES OCCURED IN TIMES WHEN HUMAN'S WEREN'T PRODUCING LARGE AMOUNTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE - NATURE PRODUCES FAR MORE CO2 IN VOLCANIC EMISSIONS, ANIMALS, BACTERIA AND DECAYING VEGETATION THAN HUMANS DO

SOLAR ACTIVITY - HEATING EFFECTS OF SUNS RAYS NORMALLY KEPT FROM EARTH BY CLOUDS - WHEN SOLARACTIVITY HIGH, SOLAR WINDS CAUSE LESS CLOUDS TO FORM - MORE OF SUNS HEAT CAN REACH EARTH

NOT DUE TO CARBON DIOXIDE EMMISSIONS - EARTH GREW COLDER AFTER FIRST WORLD WAR - CO2 EMISISONS RISING RAPIDLY

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Global Warming - Possible Solutions

ELECTRICITY GENERATING ALTERNATIVES - E.G. WIND POWER, SEA POWER, SOLAR POWER - DO NOT PRODUCE CARBON DIOXIDE - GREEN ENERGY PROGRAMME ANNOUNCED IN 2008 - 1/3 OF BRITAINS POWER NEEDS TO BE PRODUCED BY WIND POWER BY 2020 - INCREASED USE OF NUCLEAR POWER BY 2050

CAR POWERING ALTERNATIVES - E.G. ELECTRIC BATTERIES AND DEISEL - DON'T PRODUCE CARBON EMISSIONS - HOWEVER THERE ARE PROBLEMS - E.G. ELECTRICAL BATTERIES LEAD TO JUST AS MUCH POLLUTION - RELY ON ELECTRICITY PRODUCED IN POWER STATIONS - BIOFUEL COULD LEAD TO WORLD STARVATION

IMPROVING EFFICIENCY - E.G. CARS - TAKES 50 CARS PRODUCED IN 2008 TO PRODUCE SAME AMOUNT OF POLLUTION AS ONE CAR MADE IN 1976 - 2010 - POLLUTANTS EMMITED BY CARS REDUCED BY 75% COMPARED TO 1992 EVEN THOUGH AMOUNT OF CARS INCREASED

PUBLIC TRANSPORT - REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONS FROM SINGLE OCCUPANCY CARS - TRAINS ARE LOWEST CARBON EMISSION FORM OF TRANSPORT

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Pollution - Forms

ACID RAIN - FOSSIL FUELS BURNED - PRODUCE SULFUR DIOXIDE - STORED IN ATMOSPHERE AS SULPHURIC ACID - FALLS AS ACID RAIN - DESTROYS LIMESTONE BUILDINGS AND KILLS SEA LIFE

HUMAN WASTE - WASTE PRODUCED BY HUMANS - SEWAGE, REFUSE, LITTER - THREAT TO FUTURE OF PLANET

  • SEWAGE RELEASED INTO SEA IS ONE OF MAIN CAUSES OF EUTROPHICATION AND SOURCE OF WATER POLLUTION
  • LITTER CAUSES INCREASE IN RAT POPULATION - BRING MANY DISEASES TO HUMANS - ALSO CAUSES BIKE AND CAR ACCIDENTS WHEN IT'S ON ROADS

EUTROPHICATION - EXCESS OF NITRATES, NITRITES AND PHOSPHATES RUN INTO LAKES - CAUSE ALGAL BLOOM - PLANTS IN SEA DON'T GET LIGHT - PLANTS DIE - USE UP OXYGEN IN DECAY - NO OXYGEN FOR FISH - FISH DIE

RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION - NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS PRODUCE RADIOACTIVE WASTE - TAKE YEARS TO LOSE RADIOACTIVITY AND BECOME SAFE - WASTE BURRIED - NO ONE KNOWS WHETHER IT'S SAFE DISPOSAL METHOD - HUMANS COME ONTO CONTACT - CAUSES CANCER AND DEATH

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Pollution - Possible Solutions

ACID RAIN - SOCIETY STOPS USING FOSSIL FUELS - LESS SULFUR DIOXIDE EMITTED - NO ACID RAIN - GET ELECTRICITY FROM SUN, WIND, BIOFUELS ETC.

HUMAN WASTE - COMBINATION OF RECYCLING, USING INCINERATORS TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY, SEWAGE TO PRODUCE METHANE - PROVIDE FUEL FOR POWER STATIONS - DRAWBACKS - REUSING GLASS BOTTLES - HAVE TO BE STERILISED - CAN USE MORE ENERGY - INCENERATION A FORM OF GREENHOUSE GASES

EUTROPHICATION - IMPROVED SEWAGE TREATMENT - LESS USE OF PHOSPHATES IN DETERGENTS - LESS USE OF NITRATES IN FARMING FERTILISERS - INCREASE IN ORGANIC FARMING COULD REVERSE THIS - USE OF MANURE LEADS TO INCREASE OF NITRATES IN STREAMS AND RIVERS

RADIOACTIVE WASTE - SOME CAN BE REPROCESSED (SEPERATES USEFUL FUEL FOR RECYCLING FROM WASTE) - MEANS 97% OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE CAN BE REUSED - 3% STILL HAS TO BE STORED - UK GOVERNMENT WORKING ON PROJECT FOR THIS 

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Scarcity of Natural Recources and Possible Solutio

RENEWABLE RECOURCES - RECOURCES THAT CAN BE USED OVER AND OVER AGAIN BECAUSE THEY'LL NEVER RUN OUT E.G. WIND POWER

FINITE OR NON-RENEWABLE RECOURCES - RECOURCES THAT WILL EVENTUALLY RUN OUT E.G. FOSSIL FUELS - MORE HUMANS USE THEM, MORE SCARCE THEY BECOME

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS - ALTERNATIVE WAYS OF MAKING ELECTRICITY E.G. WIND POWER, SOLAR POWER

  • CAR MANUFACTURERS LOOKING AT WATER, SUGAR CANE AND ELECTRICAL BATTERIES AS ALTERNATIVE WAY OF POWERING CARS
  • RECYCLING - ALLOW LIVES OF MANY FINITE RECOURCES TO BE EXTENDED E.G. 75% OF CARS NOW MADE FROM RECYCLED MATERIALS
  • SCIENTISTS WORKING ON USING CHEMICALS FROM PLANTS RATHER THAN OIL TO MAKE THINGS LIKE PLASTICS
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Stewardship - Christian Beliefs

GENESIS ACCOUNTS OF CREATION

GOD GAVE HUMANS RIGHT TO RULE OVER EARTH - RIGHT TO CONTROL OVER ANIMALS, OTHER LIVING CREATURES AND PLANTS - HOWEVER THIS GIVES HUMANS MANY RESPONSIBILITIES AS ADE CLEAR BY REST OF BIBLE

PARABLE OF THE TALENTS AND MINAS

GOD TAUGHT CHRISTIANS TO PASS ON MORE THAN THEY HAVE BEEN GIVEN - CHRISTIANS HAVE RESPONSIBILITY TO LEAVE EARTH A BETTER PLACE THAN WHEN THEY FOUND IT

SERMON ON THE MOUNT

JESUS TAUGHT CHRISTIANS TO HAVE RESPONSIBILITY TO ENSURE FAIR SHARING OF EARTHS RECOURCES

JUDGEMENT DAY

ALL CHRISTIANS WILL BE JUDGED ON LAST DAY - REWARDED WITH HEAVEN IF THEY'VE FULFILLED DUTY OF STEWARDS OF GOD'S EARTH

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Stewardship - Christian Lives

DUTY TO BE GOD'S STEWARD - REDUCE POLUTION AND RESERVE EARTHS RECOURCES FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS

STEWARDSHIP MEANS FAIR SHARING OF EARTHS RECOURCES - CHRISTIANS SHOULD IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR LESS FORTUNATE BY SHARING EARTHS RECOURCES WITH LEDC'S WITHOUT CAUSING MORE POLLUTION

BELIEF THAT EVERYONE WILL BE JUDGED BY GOD - CHRISTIANS FEEL THEY SHOULD PROMOTE REDUCTION OF POLLUTION AND SAVING OF EARTHS RECOURCES - WAY OF LIVING GOD WANTS THEM TO

BELIEF IN STEWARDSHIP - EVERY CHRISTIAN SHOULD BE JUDGING WHAT THEY ARE DOING IN LIFE AS AN INDIVIDUAL BY STANDARDS OF GODS STEWARDSHIP - BEING GOOD STEWARD IS CONSERVING ENVIRONMENT AND SCARCE RECOURCES ON EARTH - MAKES CHRISTIAN A GOOD CHRISTIAN

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Stewardship - Muslim Beliefs and Lives

GOD CREATED ADAM AS HIS KHALIFAH (SOMEONE WHO LOOKS AFTER THINGS FOR YOU) - MUSLIMS ARE GODS KHALIFAHS WHO HAVE TO KEEP BALANCE OF CREATION - LOOK AFTER EARTH FOR GOD BY FOLLOWING WAY OF LIFE SET OUT IN QU'RAN AND SHARI'AH - INVOLVES BEING PART OF UMMAH

DAY OF JUDGEMENT - PEOPLE WILL BE QUESTIONED BY GOD ON THE WAY THEY HAVE LOOKED AFTER THE EARTH - THOSE WHO HAVE POLLUTED WILL NOT GO TO PARADISE

LIFE IS A TEST FROM GOD - THEY WILL BE JUDGED ON IT AT END OF WORLD - MAJOR PART OF TEST IS LOOKING AFTER ENVIRONMENT - THOSE WHO FAIL ARE PUNISHED

LIVES

RESPONSIBILITY OF GOD'S KHALIFAH MEANS MUSLIMS SHOULD TRY AND REDUCE POLLUTION AND PRESERVE RECOURCES BY FOLLOWING SHARI'AH

SHARI'AH AND UMMUH MAKE MUSLIMS BELIEVE THAT STEWARDSHIP MEANS FAIR SHARING OF EARTHS RECOURCES - SHOULD TRY TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR THISE IN MEDC'S

LIFE IS A TEST - DUTY TO REDUCE POLLUTION AND CONSERVE RECOURCES - JUDGE WHAT THEY DO IN LIFE BY INDIVIDUAL STANDARDS OF GOD'S STEWARDSHIP

UNITY AND BALANCE IN CREATION - DUTY TO PRESERVE ENVIRONMENT - CONTINUES HOW GOD INTENDED

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Infertility Treatments - Types

IN-VITRO FERTILISATION (IVF) - EGG FROM WOMEN IS FERTILISED OUTSIDE WOMB USING EITHER PARTNERS OR DONORS SPERM AND THEN PLACED BACK IN WOMB

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION BY HUSBAND (AIH) - HUSBANDS SPERM INSERTED INTO WIFE BY MECHANICAL MEANS

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION BY DONOR (AID) - DONORS SPERM INJECTED INTO MOTHER BY MECHANICAL MEANS

EGG DONATION - EGG DONATED BY ANOTHER WOMAN IS FERTILISED BY HUSBANDS SPERM AND PLACED INTO WIFE BY MECHANICAL MEANS

EMBRYO DONATION - BOTH EGG AND SPERM COME FROM DONORS - FERTILISED USING IVF AND PLACED INTO MOTHERS WOMB BY MECHANICAL MEANS

SURROGACY - EITHER WHEN EGG AND SPERM OF MALE AND FEMALE PARTNERS FERTILISED AND PLACED INTO ANOTHER WOMANS WOMB OR WHEN ANOTHER WOMEN IS ARTIFICIALLY INSIMINATED BY MALE PARTNERS SPERM

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Infertility Treatments - Importance

INFERTILITY HAS BECOME MUCH MORE OF A PROBLEM IN WESTERN WORLD - AS MANY AS 12.5% OF COUPLES IN UK ESTIMATED TO HAVE INFERTILITY PROBLEMS

MALE INFERTILITY - PARTICULAR PROBLEMS IN WESTERN DEVELOPED NATIONS - 1.5 MILLION MEN IN UK HAVE FERTILITY PROBLEMS

2007, 12% OF ALL BIRTHS WERE RESULT OF INFERTILITY TREATMENTS - IMPORTANT TO LARGE NUMBER OF COUPLES

PART OF HUMAN NATURE TO WANT TO HAVE CHILDREN AND RAISE FAMILY - HOW A SPECIES SURVIVES

PSYCOLOGICAL PROBLEMS CAUSED IF COUPLE IS DESPERATE TO HAVE CHILDREN BUT ARE UNABLE TO

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Infertility Treatments - Christian Beliefs

WHY CATHOLIC CHURCHES BELIEVE INFERTILITY TREATMENTS ARE WRONG

  • IVF INVOLVES FERTILISING SEVERAL EGGS, SOME OF WHICH ARE THROWN AWAY OR USED FOR EXPERIMENTATION - NO DIFFERENT TO ABORTION - BANNED BY CATHOLIC CHURCH
  • ALL FORMS OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION INVOLVE MASTURBATION FROM MALE - SIN FOR CATHOLICS
  • ALL FORMS OF EMBRYO TECHNOLOGY INVOLVE FERTILISATION TAKING PLACE APART FROM SEX ACT - GOD INTENDED PROCREATION TO BE PART OF SEX ACT

WHY OTHER CHRISTIAN CHURCHES ALLOW INFERTILITY TREATMENTS

  • GOOD TO USE TECHNOLOGY TO PROVIDE COUPLES WITH JOY OF HAVING CHILDREN - MAIN PURPOSE OF CHRISTIAN MARRIAGE
  • IF EGG AND SPERM ARE FROM HUSBAND AND WIFE, BABY WILL BE BIOLOGICAL OFFSPRING OF PARENTS
  • DISCARDED EMBRYOS AREN'T FEOTUSES - DESTRUCTION CAN BE JUSTIFIED BY DOCTRINE OF DOUBLE EFFECT (INTENTION IS TO PRODUCE CHILDREN FOR CHILDLESS COUPLES NOT DESTROY EMBRYOS)
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Infertility Treatments - Muslim Beliefs

WHY MOST MUSLIMS ACCEPT IVF AND AIH WHEN COUPLES ARE HAVING FERTILITY PROBLEMS

  • SIMPLY USE IF MEDICINE TO BRING ABOUT FAMILY LIFE ALL MUSLIMS EXPECTED TO HAVE
  • EGG AND SPERM FROM HUSBAND AND WIFE - BABY BIOLOGICAL OFFSPRING
  • DISCARDED EMBRYOS NOT FEOTUSES - DESTRUCTION CAN BE JUSTIFIED BY DOCTRINE OF DOUBLE EFFECT

WHY ISLAMIC LAWYERS HAVE BANNED ALL OTHER TYPES OF FERTILITY TREATMENT

  • DENY A CHILDS RIGHT TO KNOW WHO IT'S NATURAL PARENTS ARE
  • ANY FORM OF EGG AND SPERM DONATION REGARDED AS FORM OF ADULTERY
  • EGG AND SPERM DONATION VERY SIMILAR TO ADOPTION - FROWNED APON IN ISLAM
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Transplant Surgery - Importance

EFFECTIVE AND PROVEN METHOD OF CURING LIFE THREATENING DISEASES LIKE KIDNEY AND HEART FAILURE AND IMPROVING LIVES

IN MARCH 2007 OVER 7000 PEOPLE WERE WAITING FOR VITAL ORGAN TRANSPLANTS BUT PREVIOUS YEAR ONLY 3000 CARRIED OUT - TRANSPLANTS COULD SAVE OVER 4000 EXTRA LIVES A YEAR

NUMBER OF PEOPLE NEEDING TRANSPLANT SURGERY RISES BY 8% EACH YEAR

PROVEN AND EFFICIENT WAY OF BRINGING LIFE OUT OF DEATH - GIVES PEOPLE CHANCE TO HELP PEOPLE AFTER THEIR DEATH BY GIVING ORGNS THAT WOULD HAVE BEEN BURRIED OR BURNED

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Transplant Surgery - Christian Beliefs

WHY MOST CHRISTIANS AGREE TO TRANSPLANTS BUT OBJECT TO RICH PAYING FOR ORGANS FROM POOR

  • IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL - BODY NOT NEEDED AFTER DEATH - CAN BE USED FOR OTHERS
  • THE GOLDEN RULE
  • NATURE OF CHRISTIANITY IS LOVING - DONATING ORGANS LOVING
  • OBJECT TO PAYING FOR ORGANS - EXPLOITING POOR - EVERYONE CREATED IN GODS IMAGE

WHY SOME CHRISTIANS OPPOSED TO TRANSPLANTS USING ORGANS FROM DEAD PEOPLE

  • ORGANS INTRINSIC PART OF HUMANS CREATED BY GOD
  • TRANSPLANTING ORGANS INTO LIVING - USERPING GOD - HUMANS HAVE NO RIGHT TO ACT AS GOD
  • ORGANS THAT CAN BE USED FROM LIVING STILL OBEY GOLDEN RULE EVEN IF NOT VITAL
  • CANNOT BE PAYED FOR - EXPLOITING POOR - BANNED BY BIBLE
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Transplant Surgery - Christian Beliefs

WHY SOME DO NOT AGREE WITH TRANSPLANTS AT ALL

  • DISREGARD SANCTITY OF LIFE - WILL SURGEON WHO HAVE A PATIENT DESPERATE FOR TRANSPLANT DO BEST TO SAVE DONORS LIFE?
  • USURPING GOD'S ROLE - SINFUL TO PLAY GOD
  • RAISES PROBLEMS OF WHEN SOMEONE IS DEAD - HEARTS USED FOR TRANSPLANTS NEED TO BE REMOVED BEFORE THEY START BEATING
  • DIVERTS RECOURCES FROM PREVENTION OR LESS EXPENSIVE CURES THAT COULD IMPROVE FAR MORE LIVES THAN SINGLE TRANSPLANT
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Transplant Surgery - Muslim Beliefs

WHY MOST ARE OPPOSED TO TRANSPLANT SURGERY

  • SHARI'AH TEACHES THAT NOTHING SHOULD BE REMOVED FROM BODY AFTER DEATH AND OPPOSES POST MORTUMS
  • GOD CREATED MUSLIMS - TO TAKE ORGANS FROM HIS CREATION IS TO ACT AS GOD - GREATEST SIN
  • SANCTITY OF LIFE - ALL THAT WAS MADE BY GOD BELONGS TO GOD - GOD HAS RIGHT TO GIVE OR TAKE LIFE
  • NEED ORGANS IF THEY WANT TO BE RESSURECTED ON LAST DAY

WHY SOME ALLOW TAKING ORGANS FROM A LIVING DONOR

  • SOME MUSLIM LAWYERS HAVE GIVEN CONSENT
  • FATWA ISSUED BY MUSLIM LAW COUNCIL OF UK IN 1995 - MUSLIMS COULD CARRY DONOR CARDS
  • AIMS TO DO GOOD - NOT INTENDED TO PUT BURDENS ON PEOPLE - IF SOMEONE NEEDED ORGANS THEY SHOULD BE GIVEN THEM, JUST LIKE A MUSLIM CAN EAT PORK IF THEY WOULD OTHERWISE STARVE
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