RELIGION AND SOCIETY - CRIME AND PUNISHMENT

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Law and Justice

WHY WE NEED LAWS

  • HUMAN BEINGS LIVE IN GROUPS - ANY GROUP NEEDS RULES TO ORGANISE BEHAVIOUR OF INDIVIDUALS WITHIN IT - E.G. ROADS WOULD BE DANGEROUS WITHOUT LAWS - HUMAN BEINGS NEED TO KNOW WHAT TO EXPECT FROM EACHOTHER
  • SO PEOPLE CAN WORK AND BE INVOLVED IN BUISNESS WITHOUT HAVING REWARDS FOR WORK TAKEN AWAY - E.G. IF YOU WORKED HARD FOR SOMEONE WHO DID NOT PAY YOU - MODERN DAY SOCIETY WOULD NOT FUNCTION WITHOUT REWARDS FOR WORK BECAUSE NO ONE WOULD WORK
  • TO PROTECT WEAK FROM STRONG - E.G. LIFE WOULD BE DANGEROUS IF THERE WERE NO LAWS ON MURDER
  • TO KEEP EVERYTHING ORGANISED - UK IS AN ADVANCED CIVILISATION THAT NEEDS LAWS

WHY LAWS NEED TO BE JUST

  • PEOPLE WOULD FEEL RIGHT TO BREAK LAW IF UNJUST - SOCIETY WOULD FALL APART
  • SOME LAWS UNJUST, PEOPLE MAY THINK ALL LAWS UNJUST - LAWS WOULD NOT FULFILL PURPOSE
  • IF LAWS UNJUST, PEOPLE WILL PROTEST - CAUSE CHAOS - E.G. HUMAN RIGHTS PROTEST IN US 1960S
  • PEOPLE THINK LEGAL SYSTEM NOT WORKING IF LAWS CREATE UNJUST SOCIETY - LEAD TO CIVIL WARS
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Theories of Punishment

RETRIBUTION - PUNISHMENTS SHOULD MAKE CRIMINALS PAY FOR WHAT THEY'VE DONE WRONG

  • MAKES CRIMINALS PAY FOR CRIME IN PROPORTION TO SEVERITY OF CRIME COMITTED
  • MAKES CRIMINALS SUFFER FOR MAKING VICTIMS SUFFER
  • ACTUALLY PUNISHES CRIMINAL - DICTIONARY DEFINITION IS 'MAKE OFFENDER SUFFER FOR WRONGDOING'

DETERRENCE - PUNISHMENTS SHOULD BE OF SUCH A NATURE THAT THEY PUT PEOPLE OFF CRIME

  • IT WILL STOP PEOPLE COMMITING CRIMES E.G. PEOPLE WILL NOT MURDER IF THEY WILL BE EXECUTED

REFORM - PUNISHMENT SHOULD TRY TO CHANGE CRIMINALS SO THEY WILL NOT COMMIT CRIME AGAIN

  • ONLY WAY TO STOP CRIME - TURN CRIMINALS INTO HONEST LAW ABIDING CITIZENS
  • MOST CRIMINALS COMMIT CRIMES BECAUSE OF UPBRINGING - DO NOT KNOW BETTER
  • INVOLVE GIVING CRIMINALS EDUCATION SO THEY CAN FIND A PROPER JOB AND DO GOOD IN SOCIETY

PROTECTION - PUNISHMENT SHOULD PROTECT SOCIETY FROM CRIMINALS

  • CAPITAL PUNISHMENT AND LONG PRISON SENTENCES KEEP CRIMINALS AWAY FROM SOCIETY
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Justice - Religious Beliefs

WHY JUSTICE IS IMPORTANT TO CHRISTIANS

  • BIBLE SAYS THAT GOD WILL REWARD THE RIGHTIOUS AND THE JUST
  • JESUS SAID THAT RIGH SHOULD SHARE WITH POOR IN NEW TESTEMENT
  • THE GOLDEN RULE
  • CHRISTIAN CHURCHES HAVE MADE MANY STATEMENTS ABOUT HOW JUSTICE IS IMPORTANT
  • MATTHEW - BLESSED OR THOSE WHO HUNGER AND THIRST FOR RIGHTOUSNESS

WHY JUSTICE IS IMPORTANT TO MUSLIMS

  • QUR'AN TEACHES THAT GOD WILL REWARD THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN JUST ON THE LAST DAY
  • PART OF MUSLIMS ROLE AS VICE-GERENTS OF GODS CREATION IS TO BEHAVE JUSTLY TO OTHERS AND ENSURE WORLD IS GOVERNED IN A FAIR WAY
  • ISLAM TEACHES THAT ITS UNJUST TO BE INVOLVED IN INTEREST - TAKES MONEY FROM POOR
  • ISLAM TEACHES THAT ALL PEOPLE SHOULD HAVE EQUAL RIGHTS BEFORE LAW - MUSLIMS SHOULD WORK FOR FAIRER SHARING - WORK OF MUSLIMS TRYING TO BRING JUSTICE TO THE WORLD
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Capital Punishment - Non Religious Beliefs

FOR

  • ACT AS DETTERENT FOR FUTURE MURDERERS
  • KEEPS SOCIETY SAFE FROM CRIMINALS
  • HUMAN LIFE MOST IMPORTANT THING THERE IS - SHOWN BY TAKING SOMEONE'S LIFE WHO HAS TAKEN ANOTHER'S
  • RETRIBUTION - MAJOR PART OF PUNISHMENT - ONLY COMPENSATION FOR TAKING A LIFE IS TO HAVE YOUR LIFE TAKEN

AGAINST

  • STATISTICS SHOW THAT DEATH PENALTY DOES NOT AFFECT CRIME RATE IN SAID COUNTRY
  • MANY DO NOT EPECT TO BE CAUGHT - DETERRENT INAFFECTIVE
  • HUMAN LIFE MOST IMPORTANT THING - MUST RESPECT IT, NO MATTER WHAT PERSON HAS DONE
  • CAN'T SINK TO CRIMINALS LEVEL
  • LIFE SENTENCE OFTEN REGARDED AS WORSE THAN DEATH
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Capital Punishment - Christian Beliefs

 AGAINST

  • CHRISTIANITY BASED ON IDEA THAT JESUS CAME TO REFORM SINNERS - CANNOT BE REFORMED IF DEAD
  • JESUS BANNED RETRIBUTION - SAID EYE FOR EYE WAS WRONG - NEW TESTEMENT REPLACED LAW OF OLD WHICH PERMITS CAPITAL PUNISHMENT
  • HUMAN LIFE IS SACRED - ONLY GOD HAS RIGHT TO TAKE LIFE
  • THE GOLDEN RULE
  • THOU SHALT NOT KILL

FOR

  • BIBLE SETS DOWN DEATH PENALTY AS PUNISHMENT FOR NUMBER OF CRIMES - ALLOWED BY GOD
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH AND C OF E HAVEN'T RETRACTED STATEMENTS PERMITTING IT
  • CHRISTIAN CHURCH ITSELF HAS USED CAPITAL PUNISHMENT IN THE PAST
  • REEP WHAT YOU SOW
  • EYE FOR AN EYE, TOOTH FOR A TOOTH
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Capital Punishment - Muslim Beliefs

FOR

  • PUNISHMENT SET DOWN BY GOD IN QUR'AN - WORD OF GOD
  • MUHAMMAD MADE SEVERAL STATEMENTS AGREEING WITH CP - PERFECT EXAMPLE TO MUSLIMS
  • MUHUMMAD SENTENCED PEOPLE TO DEATH FOR MURDER - FINAL EXAMPLAR 
  • SHARI'AH SAYS CP IS PUNISHMENT FOR MURDER AND ADULTERY - LAW OF ISLAM

AGAINST

  • RECOMMENDED BY QUR'AN BUT NOT COMPULSORY
  • SHARI'AH SAYS FAMILY OF MURDER VICTIM CAN ACCEPT BLOOD MONEY FROM MURDERER INSTEAD OF CP
  • AGREE WITH NON RELIGIOUS ARGUMENTS
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Drugs and Alcohol - Laws

LAWS ON TABACCO

  • ILLEGAL TO SELL TOBACO PRODUCTS TO ANYONE UNDER 18
  • ALL TABACCO PACKS MUST HAVE LARGE, HARD HITTING HEALTH WARNINGS - NOT ALLOWED TO SHOW MISLEADING TERMS E.G. LIGHT, MILD, LOW TAR
  • ADVERTS FOR PRODUCTS ARE BANNED
  • ILLEGAL TO SMOKE IN ALL INDOOR PUBLIC PLACES

LAWS ON ALCOHOL

  • ILLEGAL TO GIVE ALCOHOLIC DRINK TO ANYONE UNDER AGE OF 5 EXCEPT IN EMERGENCY
  • CHILDREN UNDER 16 CAN GO ANYWHERE IN PUB AS LONG AS ESCORTED BY ADULT
  • AGED 16 OR 17 CAN DRINK BEER, WINE OR CIDER WITH A MEAL IF IT IS BOUGHT BY AND THEY ARE ACCOMPANIED BY AN ADULT
  • UNDER 18S NOT ALLOWED TO PURCHASE ALCOHOL IN PUB, OFF-LICENCE SUPERMARKET ETC.
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Drugs and Alcohol - Laws

LAWS ON DRUGS

  • CLASS A DRUGS - E.G. ECSTASY, LSD, HEROINE, COCAINE - 7Y PRISON SENTENCE FOR POSSESION - UP TO LIFE PRISON SENTENCE FOR DEALING
  • CLASS B DRUGS - E.G. CANNABIS - 5Y PRISON FOR POSSESION - 14Y PRISON FOR DEALING
  • CLASS C DRUGS - E.G.GHB, KETAMINE, TRANQUILLISERS - 2Y FOR POSSESSION - 14Y FOR DEALING

MISUSE OF DRUGS ACT 1971

  • CLASS A, B, C DRUGS ARE CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES - OFFENCE TO:
    • POSSESS UNLAWFULLY
    • POSSESS WITH INTENT
    • SUPPLY OF OFFER TO SUPPLY
    • ALLOW PREMISES YOU OCCUPY OR MANAGE TO BE USED FOR DRUG TAKING
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Drugs and Alcohol - Social Problems

TABACCO

  • PAIN CAUSED TO FAMILY FROM WATCHING LOVED ONES DIE FROM DISEASES THAT COULD HAVE BEEN PREVENTED

ALCOHOL

  • ALCOHOL RESPONSIBLE FOR 41% DEATHS FROM FALLS, 30% DEATHS FROM DROWNING
  • ALCOHOL RESPONSIBLE FOR 55-75% MURDER VICTIMS
  • 50% OF THOSE WHO COMMIT SEX OFFENCES ARE ALCOHOLICS

ILLEGAL DRUGS

  • DRUGS ILLEGAL - ALL DRUG DEALERS CRIMINALS
  • VIOLENCE BETWEEN CRIMINAL GANGS OPERATING TRANSPORT AND SUPPLY OF DRUGS
  • HEAVY COST OF MAINTAINING ADDICTION FORCES ADDICT INTO LIFE OF CRIME
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Drugs and Alcohol - Health Problems

TABACCO

  • CAN CAUSE VARIOUS CANCERS, STROKE, CHRONIC BRONCHITUS ETC.
  • LIMITS BLOOD SUPPLY TO PENIS - CAUSES IMPOTENCE AND FERTILITY PROBLEMS
  • BABY LIKELY TO HAVE LOW BIRTH WEIGHT/ NOT DEVELOP PROPERLY IF MOTHER SMOKES WHEN PREGNANT
  • INCREASES RISK OF PREMATURE BIRTH AND STILLBIRTH

ALCOHOL

  • LIVER PROBLEMS
  • STOMACH DISORDERS
  • HEART DISEASE 
  • MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS

DRUGS

  • INFECTION FROM DIRTY NEEDLES, BACTERIAL OR VIRAL DISEASES, LIVER DISEASE, SELF HARM
  • MANY GET PSYCIATRIC DISORDERS
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Drugs and Alcohol - Christian Beliefs

WHY ALL CHRISTIANS ARE AGAINST ILLEGAL DRUG USE

  • IT IS AGAINST THE LAW FOR GOOD REASONS - MUST OBEY LAW IF IT IS JUST
  • ST PAUL TAUGHT THAT THE HUMAN BODY IS A TEMPLE THAT MUST NOT BE ABUSED
  • MENTAL EFFECTS MAKE IT DIFFICULT TO WORSHIP PROPERLY
  • ALL CHURCHES TEACT THAT ILLEGAL DRUG USE IS WRONG

WHY MOST CHRISTIANS ALLOW ALCOHOL AND TABACCO IN MODERATION 

  • JESUS' FIRST MIRICLE - TURNED WATER INTO WINE
  • ST PAUL SAID ALL CHRISTIANS CAN DRINK IN MODERATION
  • JESUS HAD BREAD AND WINE AT HIS LAST SUPPER
  • MOST CHURCHES GIVE ALCOHOLIC WINE IN COMMUNION SERVICES

 

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Drugs and Alcohol - Christian Beliefs

WHY SOME CHRISTIANS ARE AGAINST TABACCO

  • TAKING TABACCO OR ALCOHOL - ABUSING GOD'S TEMPLE
  • PASSAGES IN BIBLE WARNING AGAINST DRUNKENESS
  • BIBLE TEACHES THAT CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL DISRUPTS JUDGEMENT AND MORALS
  • CONCERNED WITH SOCIAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS
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Drugs and Alcohol - Muslim Beliefs

WHY ALL MUSLIMS ARE AGAINST USE OF DRUGS AND ALCOHOL

  • QUR'AN SAYS THAT INTOXICANTS ARE MEANS BY WHICH SATAN TRIES TO STOP PEOPLE WORSHIPPING GOD
  • MUHAMMAD TEACHES THAT INTOXICANTS IS KAMHR WHICH IS FORBIDDEN
  • FORM OF SUICIDE - SUICIDE FORBIDDEN
  • MUHAMMAD SAID ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS MUSLIMS HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH SALE OF ALCOHOL
  • MUSLIM LAWYERS TAKE MUHAMMADS STATEMENT 'DO NOT HARM YOURSELF OR OTHERS' TO MEAN THAT YOU CAN'T TAKE DRUGS OR ALCOHOL
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