religion as change inhibiting
It is a conservative force- dose not encourage social change
- Durkheim: saw religion as functioning to reinforce S/S- though collective worship/ helped produce a V/C and A C/C
- Malinowski: helped people cope with tension/ life crises: rituals help reinforce C/V this helps to maintain the S/q
Parsons: saw religion as providing a V/C helping to maintain S/O though dealing with stress/ uncertainly- provide meaning/ answering fundamental questions
Bellah: C/R unites people and gives them an identity (US) helps them feel integrated- don’t challenge society- inhibiting social change
Because religion functions to reinforce collective values, to unite people and to help them adjust to difficulties- works to maintain the existing social system
Acts a CONSERVTIVE FORCE
Religion as a conservative force: Feminist’s religion is an ideological force which serves to perpetuate patriarchy.
Religion as a force for social change : religion can be liberating for women e.g. Woodhead points out that women use religion to gain greater freedom and respect.
traditional marxism CONSERVATIVE FORCE
Religion part of the SUPPER STRUCTURE – reflects and legitimates the social structures
Religion/ instrument of oppression and it cushions the effect of oppression
Religion is the opium of the people
It provides hope while hiding the real source of inequality
Present s the world as god given
NEO marxism can encourage social change
Weber: Calvinists beliefs ensured that the right attitudes and values were in place for capitalism to prosper
Maduro shows how religion may have a degree of independence from the economic base and become a source of radical change e.g. liberation theology
The growth of religious fundamentalism could also be seen as an agent for change – e.g. the Taliban - they want to return to a more strict following of traditional religious beliefs.
It has become popular as a response to a rapidly changing world
It is a problem in society as Fundamentalists may value their beliefs above tolerance of others
An example of recant fundamentalism is malala yousafzai
Religion as change promoting and change inhibiting
The evidence so far suggests that there have been a number of times when religion promotes change and inhibits change.
e.g The peasant revolt
McGuire argues that whether religion is a conservative force or not, depends on 5 factors:
- Charismatic leaders
- Beliefs and practices
- Relationship to society
- Religious organisation
- Alternative avenues to change