La Belle Dame Sans Merci
Ballad form (into 12 quatrains)
- Many regular people couldn't read or write (accessible and memorable)
- Repetition of ideas (recurring motif) and refrains
- Direct speech - adds theatricality and engages audience (Ballad) "I love thee true"
- The question at the start is answered at the end.- Cyclic structure
Flower imagery and metaphors
- "lily on thy brow", pale death. A contrast between wildflowers and their connotations.
- Garland - like a wedding ring, control.
- 'Wild' (epizeuxis) - enchanting - passive transfer of control.
- Romantic poet used mythology
- Opposite of damsel in distress (parody)
- Retrospect - reliability
- Pathetic fallacy
A child to his sick grandfather
Daughter of a Presbyterian minister
Shares 1 romantic theme (not romantic era) - Ordinary people rather than Kings and Gods.
One of the only woman writer of her era
Changing tenses - coming to terms with grief (religion)
Rhetorical Question - desperation, emotive.
Direct address (2nd person) - "Lead you kindly" (imperative)
refrain (of address) - "dad" (close), epiphora showing desperation.
The last line is shorter - couplets show equal relationship until the end.
She walks in Beauty
- Romantic poet
- After the poem was written he got married and divorced.
- Rumours that he had affairs with actresses and his half-sister and abused his wife
- "Mad bad and dangerous to know" - went to Europe and fought for Greek independence from the Ottoman empire.
Structure and Language
- Iambic tetrameter - Sincerity and simplicity
- Triadic structure - emphasis on last
- Contrast - "Dark and bright"
- Sibilance - serenely sweet express" Ethereal, (romantic - not rational)
Sense of wonder - women and the natural world (Context)
- Pioneer of Romantic era - Nature and high emotion
- Partnership with Coleridge - about him
- Grew up in a rustic area where his dad died - Birthplace had an effect on his writing.
- Didn't see his child for years due to the French revolution (Wife and Daughter lived in France)
Language and Structure
- 3 participles (active verbs) - "murmuring, sparkling, living love"
- Cyclical structure - "fond hearts door"
- Doomed love and imperfections - Tess of the d'Urbervilles
- Romantic influence - Death of countryside and industrial revolution impact
- Pathetic fallacy - "Sun was white, as though chidden of God" - 12th Century word stands out - stuck in the past.
- "were grey" -> "greyish leaves": setting changes with writers memory
- Oxymoron - "Alive enough to have the strength to die" - Not getting on
- Semantic field of neutral colours - 'grey' ironic because reader is angry, not neutral, Nature is indifferent and doesn't care - challenges romantic influence
- Cyclical structure - no sense of closure
- Ballad - (ABBA) unconventional rhyme scheme for Ballad form - damage in relationship
- Dramatic monologue - 'Your', high emotion, confession, in the moment.
- Invalid for most of her life - Did lots of reading (Heavily influenced by the Bible)
- Fell in love with Robert Browning (She was already married) and ran away to Italy with him.
- Wrote 44 Sonnets in private before they got married
- Archaic language - "I love thee": Imagery & connotations to love: Love is spiritual
- Questions/Direct address - "How do I love thee?" - Confident, love should be questioned, Untraditional - can be counted
- Emotive language - High emotion (context - Invalid)
- Italian Sonnet - Traditional love poem (Octave + sestet) - Love is same as any other
- Capitalisation - "Being and Ideal Grace" - Biblical and devotion. Being compared to worshiping God
- Caesura - Attention to High emotion. Doesn't flow perfectly (love isn't)
My Last Duchess
- Wanted to be a play write - Narrative poetry
- About a powerful character from Renaissance - Duke Ferrera
- Patriarchal society - Women are subservient, Men in charge
- Possessive pronouns - "My" - control
- Metaphor - "Notice Neptune, though, taming a sea-horse" - Powerful controlling something delicate yet wild but peaceful. Seahorses can't be tamed aren't a threat
- Symbolism - "The curtain I have drawn" - Only to be seen on occasion. Death
- Dramatic Monologue - 1 perspective, biased (symbolic of what we know about her)
- Rhetorical Questions - "Will't you please sit and look at her" - Not a question but an imperative command. Power
- Repetition (antanaclasis[?]) - "as if alive" - at the start (realistic) and end (no longer alive - taunting beyond death). Emphasis that she is dead.
1st date He + She
- 21st-century dating
- OBE and feminist
- Satirist - "Making cocoa for Kingsley Amis" collection
- Pronouns - "I/She"
- "Where are we?" - Play or in relationship
- Euphemism - "It wasn't entirely untrue" - the whole thing is a disaster but they pretend otherwise
- Ballad - amusing, predictable
- Motif/repetition - "undistracted by me"
- 2 monologues - dual perspective, ironic/symbolic - next to each other but don't share feelings.
- Current Poet laureate
- Explores conflict/dark side of relationships (Havisham) and perspective of hurt lover
- Challenges Stereotypes (The world's wife)
- Alliteration "Cute card" - Sarcastic tone
- Metaphor "moon wrapped in brown paper" - Hyperbole, expectations of love
- "It will blind you with tears like a lover" - Smilie - not able to see things as they are. An opinion stated as fact (convinced from experience).
- "Take it" imperative: Subversion. commitment is forceful "shrink to a wedding ring" metaphor
- Syntax - Most lines end with a noun for imagery. "heart" to "knife"
- Irregular - ups and downs of a relationship. Short sentences are forceful.
- Enjambment - constant attention in a relationship.
- member of 'The movement' - Anti-modernist/romantic - been through 2 wars and believes the past shouldn't be romanticised.
- 20th Century - Talk about sexual/physical relationships openly.
- Juxtaposition and contrast "strangely apart yet strangely close"
- Irregular rhyme scheme - unpredictable
- pronouns - a Universal couple (i.e 'he' not 'my dad' )
i wanna be yours
- Performance poet and musician - "Bard of Salford"
- Punk Poet - Often uses comedy
- metaphor - "let me be your" - possessive, control in a good way. household objects. love is every day, not romantic moments.
- simile/ epizeuxis /hyperbole- "deep as the Atlantic ocean, deep deep deep"
- Pun "coffee pot/ call the shots" - love isn't serious
- No punctuation - breaking the rules (punk poet)
- anaphora + epiphora -"let me be your/ i wanna be yours" - in a submissive role
- rhyme/lyrical - context.
- Post-modern - Referencing other texts
- Intertextual - Alice in Wonderland
- Satirises the Couplet form - not predictable (usually used)
Metaphor/reference "eat me/drink me" - love is fantasy
possessive impersonal pronoun - "What I hate about love is its ..." - personification of love
coupler - half rhymes yet unpredictable. go together but not.
Change of tone. "what I loathe"
- Two of his children predeceased him.
- Ex-army (WW2) - war/conflict is everywhere.
- Plosive alliteration - aggression "blister beaded"
- Personification - aggression, conflict
- Iambic pentameter - heartbeat/marching army
- Juxtaposition "nettle bed" - innocence/ military
- "and" repetition - memory being recollected.
- Based on C4 documentary "The not dead" (He is a modern poet)
- Bosnian war (also focuses on social issues of war)
- Role of Pain in relationships
- Semantic field (body and objects) - being dehumanised, not in control of his identity. Physical body in a relationship
- verbs become more intimate - "trace" to "hold"
- Metaphor - martial imagery. lack of intimacy in the army - "grazed heart".
- Rhyming couplets - couple or organised like military (subversion, wife takes active role)
- repetition - Desperation of wife ("only then...")
- Antithesis - starts off "passionate nights" to violent images.
My Father would not show us
- South-African poet - Parent/Child relationships transcend nationality and race.
- Emotional distance of the previous generation