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Evolutionary- reproductive behaviour

Evaluation

Positives

  • Lots of cross cultural research so has population validity, more reliable and generalisable 

Negatives

  • Alpha bias- highlights differences between what men and women are looking for 
  • Deterministic- we only look for a parter to pass on genes, no free will 
  • Reductionist- Doesn't look at the relationship between 2 people
  • Doesn't consider homosexual relationships- not up to date with modern society
  • Individual difference- everyone will have their own opinion on what they find attractive
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Evolutionary- reproductive behaviour

Differences in reproductive behaviour- previous research shows men and women look for and advertise very different things. 

Who conducted research on university students? Clarke and Hatfield

What 3 questions did they ask them? 1. to go out with them that night. 2. to go back to their house with them. 3. to have sex with them.

What were the results? 69% males go back to house. 75% males have sex, 0% females. 

What did Buss and Schmitt find? Over the next 2 years men would like 8 sexual partners and women would like 1. Over their lifetime men would like 18 sexual partners and women would like 4/5.

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Evolutionary- reproductive behaviour

What did Langlois et al do and find? Meta-analysis of 919 studes. Found cross-cultural agreement over what was attractive.

What did Waynforth and Dunbar do? Looked at over 900 newspaper adds from 4 USA newspapaers.

What did they find? 

  • 42% males wanted young female. Only 25% females wanted young male. 
  • 44% males wanted attractive. Only 22% females wanted attractive. 
  • 34% men offered attraction. 50% females offered. 

Who carried out a cross cultural study of over 37 culture groups in 6 continents? David Buss. 

What did he find?

  • 97% women wanted a male earning 
  • 92% men wanted attractive female
  • 100% men wanted younger partner (suggesting biology trait) 
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Evolutionary- reproductive behaviour

Sexual selection and human reproductive behaviour

What does the evolutionary approach suggest? That our mate prefereces are determined by our early ancestors which ensure the survival of our species. 

So what is sexual selection? The process where our characteristics are selected based on what is attractive to the other sex.

Who are these genes passed onto? Our offspring. 

What did Cunningham do? He looked are what males find attractive on a female face by manipulating certain features of a face.

What did he find? That men attractive: big eyes, big smile, small nose and chin (young features) and prominent cheek bones and narrow cheeks (maturity) 

Who conducted the same experiment using male faces? Waynforth.

What did he find? That women find attractive: square jaw, riged eyebrows, small eyes.

Who found that both sexes prefer a partner with a symmetrical face? Bruce and Young.

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Breakdown- Lee

How many surverys did Lee gather to create this model? 112 

Explain the stages: 

  • Dissatisfaction-  Discover problem
  • Exposure- Problem in the open
  • Negotiation- Discussion about problem
  • Resolution attempts- Try to resolve the problem
  • Termination- If problem cannot be resolved it is ended

Evaluation

What is the main limit? That it explains HOW and not WHY

Who proposed other risk factors? Duck 

What are these risk factos? 

  • predisposing personal factors (personal habits, lack of skills)
  • precipitating factors (boredom/lack of stimulation & maintenance difficulties)
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Breakdown- Lee

Describe in details each of the risk factors:

  • Predisposing personal factors, lack of social skills: They may be unable to maintain conversations and be poor at indicating aninterest in others which has the potential to cause a breakdown before a relationship has even started. 
  • Precipiating factors, lack of stimulation: according to SET people look for rewards and without stimulation they may get bored or have the idea that it isn't going anywhere. 
  • Precipitating factors, maintenance difficulties: Cannot see eachother enough, eg uni. This can cause strain. 

Who provided evidence that long distance is more common than we think and that there is litle decrease in happiness as long as couples can reunite often? Holt and Stone. 

Further evaluation

  • (POS)Face validity- makes sense to go through stages
  • (NEG)Determinisitc- if all stages are complete there will be a breakdown no matter what. 
  • (NEG) Temporal validity- doesn't look at modern relationships 
  • (NEG)Linear model- doesn't consider immediate termination (eg cheating) 
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Evolutionary- reproductive behaviour

Sex differences in parental investment

Who suggested the PIT? Trivers 

What does he argue? That gender differents in sex behaviour have evolved due to the different amount they invest in parenting

Decribe male investment into children. Low, high sperm count, fertile all life, pregnate as many women as they want. 

Why do males mate with lots of women? Because it is the best way to ensure the survivial of their genes

Describe female investment in children. High, one egg a month, fertile for around 30 years, carry baby 9 months, pain of birth, breast feed.

What is the best way for a women to ensure survival of her offspring? To mate with the best male genes. 

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Evolutionary- reproductive behaviour

Research

Who found that investment is similar in Grandparents? Michalski and Shakleford 

What did Geher et al do?

  • 91 non-parent graduates 
  • Given scenarios of having children 

What did they find? That there was no difference in self report but ANS arousal increased in males when parenting responsibilty emphasised 

Who conducted research in sexual jealousy? Buss

What did he find? That males became more distressed at the thought of his GF being sexually unfaithful and females become more distressed at the thought of being emotionally unfaithful.

What does this show?  That males would risk investing in a child that was not his and a women would risk losing her resources. 

Who found contradictory evidence to show no different between a dad investing in a child and a step child? Anderson.

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The influence of culture on romantic relationships

Who did Harris find? that 26/42 tribal communities had romantic ideas despite only 6 of them having complete freedom

What did Moore and Leung do? Compared over 200 anglo-australian with 106 chinese-australians and their attitudes towards romance. 

What did they find? 

  • That 61% anglo-australians in romantic relationships compared to 38% chinese
  • anglo-australians males less romantic and more casual than females
  • chinese males more romantic than females 

What does this show? That despite belief romance is only western, it exits in all groups. 

True/False, arranged marriages are the norm in collectivist cultures. True. 

What did Gupta and Singh do? Compared 50 arranged indian couples and 50 non-arranged indian couples. 

What did they find? That arranged marriages went from low love to high, and opposite for non-arranged. 

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The influence of culture on romantic relationships

Evaluation

Positives

  • High population validity- large samples and different age ranges used
  • High cultural validity- looked at several different countries

Negatives

  • Arranged marriages are portrayed as force, not always the case
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The influence of culture on romantic relationships

Who identified the 2 ways cultures differ in their approaches? Moghaddam 

What are these 2 approaches? Individualist and collectivist 

Describe the 2 appraoches- 

  • Individualistic- people make own decisions for own lives. "What does my heart tell me" is general relationship guidance. Partner choice is based on personality. Relationships are voluntary. Love is the main component of a successful relationship.. 
  • Collectivist-  Individual is part of group. Influenced by obligations to others. "What is best for group/family" is general relationship guidance. Partner arranged by family. Based on social status. Relationships are involvuntary. Love is not neccesary and seen as permenant. 

What did Levine do? Investiagted basis for marriage in 11 countries. He asked if they would be willing to marry someone who had all qualities they desired but did not love. 

What did he find? 14% US said maybe (individualistic). 24% India yes, 34% Thailand yes. 

What does this suggest? That attitudes towards love and marriage vary between cultures. 

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Effects of early experience and culture on adult r

Who conducted research to oppose the continuty hypothesis? Hamilton and Rutter

What did Hamilton suggest? That a major life event can change a persons attachement and therefore challenges the continuity hypothesis 

What did Rutter suggest? That people who had problematic relationships with parents had gone on to develop secure happy adult relationships.

Evaluation

Negatives 

  • Deterministic- we have no free will in the way future relationships work
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Evolutionary explanations of human reproductive be

Evaluation

Positives

  • Based on the biological approach- scientific and testable 

Negatives 

  • Doesn't account for same sex couples or people who cannot have children 
  • Alpha bias- promoting differences 
  • Determinisitc- women invest more, no choice. Doesn't consider single fathers. 
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Effects of early experience and culture on adult r

Childhood on adult relationships

What is the continuity hypothesis? our attachment type follows through from child to adult 

Research

What did Moore do? Research to find out if attachment affected adoloscent relationships

What did he find? That securely attached females were having more sex, but safer. Insecure females were having less sex but not safe. 

What does this show? that secure attachment can help adolscents handle transition into adult sexual relationships. 

What did Feeney and Noller find? Those who were insecure were more likely to break up from their partner, but this changed when the relationship went from casual to committed. 

What did Hazan and Shaver study? The continuity hypothesis using a love quiz in a newspaper

What did they find? That it supported the hypothesis (secure as child secure as adult) 

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Breakdown- Duck

What are the 4 stages that duck initially propsed? 

  • Intra-psychic phase
  • Dydadic phase
  • Social phase
  • Grave Dressing phase

What is the 5th stage that Rollie & Duck introduced? The ressurection stage

Explain all of the stages (including the thresholds): 

(what is going on)  Intra-psychic: one part of the couple notices problem/dissatisfaction, keeps to theirself. 

(I can't stand this anymore) Dyadic: Open problem, discussion. If can't resolve, next stage 

(I would be justified in leaving) Social: Close friends and family know of difficulties 

(I mean it) Grave dressing: After separation, stories in positive light.

Ressurection: Both parties evaluate and learn something.

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Maintenance- Investment Model

What did Rubsbult and Martz apply this to? Abusive relationships 

What did Rubsbult and Martz find? That women in refuge camps stayed with their abusive partner due to how much they had invested. 

Who conducted a meta-analysis of 52 studies over 5 countries? Le and agnew 

How many participants were used? Over 11,000

What were the findings of these hetrosexual and homosexual couples?

  • Highest correlation of satisfaction and commitment 
  • No gender difference 
  • Correlation between ALT and commitment stronger for lesbians 

Evaluation

  • (POSITIVE) Large sample size and spread out- representative so generalisable
  • (NEGATIVE) Socially sensitive so ensure it is ethical (consent, debrief)
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Formation- Matching hypothesis

Introduction

What does this theory suggest? That we start friendships and relationships with people of similar attractiveness.

What are the 2 key predications? 

  • The more desirable a person, the more desirable they want their partner 
  • Macthed couples more likey to have happy enduring relationship 

Research

What did Murstein do and find?

  • 99 couples mathed to random pairs
  • real couples consistently rated as more alike in attractiveness 

What did Cavior and Bobblett find? There was a stronger match between more commited couples compared to casual daters.

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Formation- Reward/Need satisfaction model

Evaluation

Positives- 

  • Ecological validity 
  • Support by research- reliable 
  • Face validity- happy people generally are more positive and attract positive people 

Negatives- 

  • Lott is alpha-bias 
  • Deterministic 
  • Theory is beta bias
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Maintenance- SET

Introduction

What type of theory is SET? Economic theory.

What are the 2 main M's of this theory? Maximise (rewards), Minimise (costs)

Who suggested this theory? Thaibult and Kelly 

What conditioning is this theory based on? Operant.

What is operant conditioning? Operant conditioing is a way of learning through rewards and punishments. This include positive and negative reinforcment. 

What will happen if the costs outweigh the rewards?  The relationship will end.

What are the 2 ways people compare their current relationship?  CL and CL alt.

Explain these. CL: comparing current relationship to previous relationships. CL alt: comparing our current relationship to a possible alternative relationship. 

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Maintenance- SET

Research

Who conducted the research into SET? Rusbult and Zembrodt.

What did they do?

  • Longitudinal study
  • 30 student couples (all hetrosexual)
  • Questionaire every 17 days for 7 months (10 ended)

What were the results?

  • Those who stayed in the relationship has increased rewards so increased satisfaction 
  • However, a change in costs had little impact
  • A CL alt influenced choice whether to stay or go 

What does this show? Some support for SET although costs are not as important. 

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Maintenance- Equity theory

Research

What did Van Yperen and Bunk do?

  • Longitudinal
  • 259 couples
  • Recruited from newspaper add
  • Used Hatfields satisfaction scale

What were the findings?

  • 65% equitable
  • 25% men overbenefited 
  • 25% women underbenefited 

What did Van Yperen and Buunk find one year later? That the couples who felt equitable were most satified.

What did Prins et al find? After interviewing dutch couples he found that more women than men were likely to have an affair if perceived inequity. 

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Maintenance- Equity theory

What researchers suggested that cultural differences were ignored in the equity theory? Gergen, Moorse and Gergen. 

What research did the conduct to support this? They found that european students favoured equality whereas american students favoured equity. 

Evaluation

Positives

  • Van Yperen & Buunk had a large sample size- more representative 

Negatives

  • Van Yperen & Buunk had a volunteer sample- participants eager and may effects validity of results if trying to guess what the researcher is looking for
  • Prins et al had culture bias- based it on dutch couples only- not representative
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Formation- Reward/Need satisfaction model

Introduction

Who proposed this model?  Byrne & Clore.

What are the proposals of this model? 

  • Behaviourist theory 
  • Operant (rewarding) & Classical (association) 
  • Negative (avoid being lonely) 

Research

What did hatfield do and find?

  • Satisfaction scale
  • Newly-weds
  • indicate how much they gave/received, anger/guilt and satisfaction level
  • Equal balance were happiest 
  • Overbenefitted felt guilty
  • Underbenefited felt angry 
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Formation- Reward/Need satisfaction model

Who did the good news bad news study? Veitch & Griffitt

What did they do? 

  • 1/2 heard good radio
  • 1/2 heard bad radio 
  • asked to fill in feelings scale after hearing news 
  • read attitudes questionair supposedly done by another participant and give them rating

What were the findings? 

  • Good news, better feelings scale, better rating
  • Bad news, worse feelings scale, worse rating

What does this show?

This supports the idea of a positive feeling causing a more positive attraction to someone and therefore supports the theory. 

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Formation- Filter theory

What did Gruber-baldini et al do? 

  • Longitidunal study 
  • Couples over aged of 21 
  • Found that couples with a similar education and age were more likely to stay together 

Evaluation

Positives-

  • Research has been repeated so is reliable
  • Real life application
  • Ecologcial validity as it has been tested on real people

Negatives- 

  • Reductionist- splits it into 3 seperate catagories only
  • Socially desirable bias 
  • Deterministic- no free will to chose when or how we chose a desirable individual
  • Age bias- most research completed on students 
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Maintenance- Investment Model

Who suggested this theory? Rubsult 

What are the key aspects of this theory? That we take into considering how much we have invested into the relationship. 

What is the definition of an invsestment? Anything that a person puts into a relationship that will be lost if they leave.

What are some examples of investments? possesions, emotions, money. 

Research (Rusbult)

  • College students in hetrosexual relationships 
  • Questionaire over 7 months 
  • Noted: satisfaction, comparrison, investment,commitment, breakdown. 

Findings- 

  • Satisfaction, CL alt and investment main things in whether to leave or stay 
  • CL alt main thing when leaving
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Formation- Reward/Need satisfaction model

Does Griffit and Guay support/oppose the theory? Support.

What did they find?

  • Participants who rec'd higher rating from examiner, gave higher rating (operant conditioning) 
  • Participants who got a higher rating gave a higher rating to the onlooker (classical conditioning)

Who suggested that the reward/need satifaction model does not explain why women who do not have their needs met stay in relationships? Lott. 

What did Hay find? That we gain satisfaction from giving as well as receving.

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Formation- Filter theory

Introduction

Who was the filter theory created by? Kerckoff and Davies

What are the stages of the filter theory? Field of availables, stage 1 social/demographic, stage 2 attitudes & values, stage 3 complementary of emotional needs, field of desirables 

Research

What did Kerckoff and Davies do? 

  • Longitudinal study over 7 months
  • Student couples been together more than and less than 18 months
  • Found attitudes and values important up to 18 months then must meet psychological needs

What does this show? This supports the filter theory as it goes through the linear models and suggests to form a successful relationship we go through the stages. 

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Formation- Reward/Need satisfaction model

Who did the good news bad news study? Veitch & Griffitt

What did they do? 

  • 1/2 heard good radio
  • 1/2 heard bad radio 
  • asked to fill in feelings scale after hearing news 
  • read attitudes questionair supposedly done by another participant and give them rating

What were the findings? 

  • Good news, better feelings scale, better rating
  • Bad news, worse feelings scale, worse rating

What does this show?

This supports the idea of a positive feeling causing a more positive attraction to someone and therefore supports the theory. 

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Maintenance- SET

Evaluation

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Maintenance- Equity theory

Introduction

Who suggested this theory? Walster 

What does this theory explain? How SET works in real life.

How does this work? By explaining that people in relationships try to acheive fairness.

What are the 4 main principles? 

  • MAXIMISE rewards, MINIMISE costs
  • NEGOTIATED to ensure fairness
  • UNFAIR=DISSATISFACTION
  • If 'loser' thinks they can RESTORE, they will be movtivated to try and re-establish equity.
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