Rehabilitation of Offenders

Strategies Employed to Reduce Crime

  • Research to assess effectiveness is very difficult

  • There is no relationship between serious crimes and capital punishment according to Hood 1996

  • Studies on deterrence (longer sentences) reveal that there is little effect on recidivism rates

  • A study by Gendreau et al 1999 found that in Canada longer sentences actually increased recidivism rates

  • Punishment based techniques are only likely to work if they are unavoidable, and if there are alternative behaviours for reaching a goal

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Treatment of Offenders

  • General research findings show that...

  • It tends to have a positive effect on convicted offenders

  • The mean effect across interventions is little, but does include those that are weak or ineffective

  • There is a large variance, there is no one special way of treating offenders currently

  • Vocational training without good prospects for real life jobs is ineffective, as well as wilderness or outdoor challenging programmes

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Interventions

  • Most effective interventions seem to be well designed, high intensity community based ones

  • Cognitive behavioural programmes focused on risk factors are very effective

  • Assumes that the offenders are influenced by the environment and have learned maladaptive behaviours but failed to learn effective cognitive and behavioural skills that enable proper functioning within society

  • Both of these interventions involve using interpersonal skills, behavioural techniques, cognitive skills training and structured individual counselling for problem solving

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Violent Offenders

  • The majority of violent offenders are reluctant to change

  • From general research we can gather that anger management does somewhat reduce aggression (mostly short term)

  • However more research is required

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Treating Offenders

  • Enables the offenders health, safety and dignity to be protected

  • Reduces the long term detrimental effects that are placed upon society by preventing offenders from reoffending

  • To understand and learn about justice, that not every crime deserves a severe punishment

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Rehabilitation Theory

  • Ward, Mann and Gannon 2007

  • Specifies the aim of therapy

  • Justifies these aims based upon the assumptions of the cause and any related factors

  • Identifies clinical targets

  • Outlines treatment based on the above factors in addition to any goals

  • Specifies the most appropriate type of treatment, addresses motivation and educates the therapist about what attitude to have towards the offender

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Good Lives Model-Comprehensive

  • Ward and Gannon 2006

  • Three levels

  • Set of general principles that specify the values in regards to the rehabilitation and any other aims

  • Implications of assumptions for understanding and explaining offending and its functions

  • Treatment implications of focusing on goals, self-regulation strategies and ecological factors

  • Criminogenic necessities are obstacles which block acquisition of primary goods

  • The behaviours and/or strategies for keeping the goods are what is problematic, rather than the primary goods themselves

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