- Created by: 13cr240
- Created on: 07-08-19 10:07
Describe Londons real estate
The UK doubled its GDP from 1986 to 2008 by removing entry barriers in the stock exchange in London which resulted in banking finance and business building in Canary wharf.
Describe the facts about UK planning laws and hous
"planning gain" is a scheme for new affordable housing as new housing estsates have to include a certain % of these homes or improve the infrastructure
House building targets for 2010-15 was 200'000 each year
Inflated housing in London and the South East
Describe/facts about the airport development
In 2015 the airports commison gave a recommendation for heathrow to build a 3rd runway estimating £18.6 billion. it will be privately funded with some of the infrastucture bought publically.
In 2001 40% of all overseas visators to the UK passed threw Heathrow
990 depature flights per week
Richard Branson stated that the country isbeing "held back" without it.
Anti expansion views on the airport development
Many MPs,major, greenpeace, national governments and some high end celebrities believe it would be unbeneficial, cause pollution, low property prices and beleive that it is not an ideal location for it due to the high population density.
pro expansion for the airport development
Buysiness leaders like Richard Brnason like the ideas as it would generate huge amounts of money, local jobs and ensure South East is kept up with the demand as at the moment its nearly at full capacity
Describe Cambridge science park
Its the largest science Park in the UK and it is linked to Cambridge university
Build in the 1970s on a redundant defence site
The campus has now attracted lots of TNCs inculding camacer research and Astrazenca
list fact about how government has helped retail l
- They can change the land use of areas to influence shps, businesses, pedestrian zones, alcohol free zoners.
- Government spent £1bbillion in 2014 to ensure growth of high street jobs
- In 2015 launched competions such as "britains best high street" to ensure small businesses could compete
Describe the Powys regeneration programme
- Funded by the welsh government and the EU
- It is a source of funding for rural areas
- 2011-13, £4million grants helped 310 businesses across Powys creating 36 jobs directly and safeguaarding 80.
- Theyve given grants for glamping sites, wildife tourism and welding workshops.
Describe the regeneration in London 2012 olympics
- 560 acres of parkland with trails, play areas, walking and cyclcing routes.
- Aquatics centre, velodrome and copper box areana now open to events and to public
- Main olympic stadium is now home to west hame football club and holds invictus games
- Games cost 9.3 billion but money has been returned through tickets, sale of athletes village.
- Queen elizabeth olympic park has had 4 million visators since opening.
Describe the tensions created by 2012 olympics
- Clays lane estate was a housing co-operative devolpment in 1977 creating a communtiy for vulnerable single people in Newham London. But in 2012 this site was chosen for the Athletes village causing 430 residents and businesses like Formans salmon smokery to be evicted.
- 380 businesses were relocatd away from the park
- "orbit giant scultpture has been unsuccessful due to high entrance fees"
A planned fast train link between London and the North of England said to be completed in 2026 and cost £43billion.
A further expansion to scotland and more areas of the North are planned in phase B
The project has been run by the central government and the private sector as the government has subsidised businesses andin return it earns a fracnchising fee.
Advantages of HS2
- Significanlty reduce journey times eg London to Birmingham only 50 minutes.
- Remove North-south divide so could increase business potential in the north
- 70% of jobs created expected to be outside of London
- When the line is running 100'000 jobs to be created and it will increase the UKs GDP and productivity
- Reduce transport costs in maintance
- reduce conjestion on roads and overcrowing on transport
- Reduce peoples reliance on fossil fuels
Disadvantages of HS2
- South more likely to benefit as more commuters will be able to travel to Lodnon
- expensive to build, estimating £50billion
- Demolition of homes and businesses as well as damage to rural england
- 50% more energy will be required to run the train than the Eurostar so high fuel costs
- Costly for government who have to pay for train to go through homes/land
- Half of properties in the area north of London Euston are affected by it.
Describe the economic effects in the docklands
- LDDC (london dockland cooperation) has turned canary wharf into Londons 2nd CBD
- There is now high rise office buildings with tertiary and quaterney jobs
- Multiplier effect on poorer communites who have jobs in bars, maid etc
Describe the docklands before regeneration
The docks were derelict with 6000 acres of derelict land.
It was also isolated with only 1 bus route and no tube
Old docks used to berth up to 600 ships at once inculding the West Indies dock which unloaded fruit and quay.
Describe the docklands new infrastructure/populati
- Jubilee line on theundergriund was extended
- Dockland light railway was devolped
- New roads eg Limehouse road link was built
- London city airport (5km away from canary wharf) provides access to the city
- 11 new health centres, 14 new schools
- Lots of public sector housing rerplaced by private sector
- Many older people moved out to Essex coast and a younger workforce moved in attracting more businesses
- The culture has become more diverse
Facts about regeneration in the docklands
- In some areas only 14% of households are not deprived so depriavtion still occurs
- Tower. hamlets has thelowest life expectancy than any other area in London
- Only 0.5% of people in canary wharf are over 65
- Only 11.3% of people are classed as a white ethnicity
- In the past 95% of housing was socially owed
- It happened in 1979
Describe Frizington and facts
- Its a smal village in West Cumbria so it is very rural and isolated
- Around 3000 inhabitants
- Real commmuntiy spirit with Bingos, history groups
- New housing esate with houses on the market for £650'000
- 20 minutes to nearest train station
- 2 busstops with a limited timetable
- 2.5 hour drive to nearest airport
- Several council estates/ flat blocks
Describe Frizington in the 20th century
Inward migration of workers for the hat manufacturing industry as there was a large Kangol factory in Frizington
In1956/57 the Kangol factory was making 120'000 berets/ week
But due to outsourcing in 1991 it employed 600 people
Describe some problems in Frizington
- In 2001 Kangol factory was forced to close as outsourced to eastern Europe causing 600 job losses
- 306 people are unemployed now which is 8.5% of population compared to 0.5% unemployment rate in nearby Keswick
- 46.8% of people live in socially owned housing so high level of deprivation
- Lack of employmen topportunites and knowledge as only 3.8% of people have a degree
- Majority of people work in primary/secondary industry
- Physical mountain geography isolates the area
Describe some successes in Frizington
- Physcial geography hasbenefitted as agriculture employes 15% of people
- Quality of life is high and only 4.8% of people live with life preventing diabilites.
- This is mainlydueto Sellafield nuclear powerplant whcih employes inhabitants amd. boosts local economy.
why was Stratford chosen for the olympic park
- High population density compared to rest of London
- Family income was on average £8000 lower than rest of London
- Unemployment rate was 7.8% whichgreater than rest of London
Economic successes of Olympic park
- 13 billion been returned to national economy anmd 46'000 have been employed to built the park
- 75p of every pound spent on the olympics went towards providing a legacy to the east end
- 1.2% reduction in Londons unemployment rate
- 5 host bourghs provided nearly a quarter of workforce
- The westfield stratford shopping centreopened with 250 retailers in east London
Social gains for the olympic park.
- Better image for investors in the east end
- 10'000 new homes, 3 health centres
- broader demographic base influx of younger workers
- 5 new neighbourhoods establishedaroud the park.
- Londons olympic village is largest sustainable homes project in the UK
- The gamescreated 6000 new community sports clubs
Describe the environmental gains from olympic rege
- The authority cleaned more than 2 million cubic metres of contamminated soil
- 200 electric vehicles transported olympians around during olympics
- The area has the largest netwrok of electric charging stations.
- 98% of demolitionwaste was torn down and recycled
- 45 hectars of habitat created
- 300'000 plants added to the wetlands
- New housing is zero carbon and water efficent
It declined after post production but it has rebranded itself as an attraction to visitors due to it being the home of Wordwroths. It is now a tourist hotspot with slate houses.
Reason for fishing, farming, tourism decline in Co
- EU quotas allowed cornish fish to be taken by other EU countries
- Stock of fish have declined eg Cod due to overfishing
- Revenues from farming fell as supermarkest want the lowest price possible
- Cheaper imported food eg EU can produce milk for 16p/litre
- Reduction in government and EU subsidies.
- Rich resources eg Tin have been mined out and overseas competition
- Seasonal economy with low-wage and parttime jobs
- Declined due to reduced connectivity and isolation
- Cheaper air travel to abroad destinations.
Describe the Eden project
- Opened in 2001 and is 2 large conservatories which exhibit world plantbiomes and there is an education centre on sustainable living
- Transformed from a china clay quarry
- Funded by national lottery, EU, government
Describe the benefits of the Eden project
- Generated 1.1 billion for the cornish economy
- Atrracted 13 million visitors
- Employed 650 people directly and supported more non-direct jobs
- Used 2700 local suppliers
- Raised cornwalls profile
- Increased employment in cornish tourism and made it a year round sector (79% of visators between Easter and october)
- Encouraged wider investment
why has Sydney become successful
Since 1985 the australian government has deregulatedbanking and finance to allow overseass banks to operate
Focusing inward migration policy on well-qualified professionals and skills which are in short supply.
economic reasons why Sydney is successful
- there is a huge CBD with 2/3 of regional headquarters.
- Large proportion of high income job in the knowledge economy
- Leading financial centre for Asia-pacific region
- Gross regional product is largest in Australia
Social region why Sydney is successful
- 10th in the world for quality of life
- 30% of residents were born overseasso high migrants
- 250 languages are spoken
- low levels of multiple deprivation
- Young economically active workforce with a median age of 36
Political and environmental reason why Sydney is s
- Climate attracts footloose companies and migrants from overseas
- Timezone allows businesses to trade in USA and in Europe.
Describe some of Sydneys losses
- Australias most expensive city
- Incomes are 7th highest in the world
- Conjestion in the CBD
- Rise in gated communities and more segrergation
- Pressure on services
- Housing shortages so they are very expensive
- High good consumption, waste, pollution
Describe the "Rust belt"
- North east America eg Ohio and Michagen
- Once worlds biggest heavy industrial areas with coal and steel
- It has declined continously since the 1950s leading to deindustralisation
Deindustralisation occured as:
- Overseas companies like China could produce coal/steel cheaper.
- Mining companies have mechanised so fewer workers
- Lower wages in the south-east USA led to relocation eg to texas.
describe some problems in the rust belt
- High income jobs have been replaced with low-wage tertiary jobs in retail
- Population decline with people moving out to find work
- High unemployment rates and crime
- Derelict buildings
- 56% of accidental deaths in Kentucky was due to drug overdose