Method 1 - Securing Furniture
Screwing down all of your furniture means that if an earthquake strikes, you will not be crushed by falling items. This reducing the risk of injury. It also reduces the amount of lasting damage to your items if the earthquake is only minor.
Method 2 - Disaster Plan
If every person in the earthquake-prone area has a disaster plan, then it avoids panic and confusion when one occurs. If your whole family knows the procedure, then it avoids clumsiness and, if the building was to collapse, the risk of anyone dying.
A disaster plan involves finding a safe place in every room in case you can't get out, and preparing an earthquake kit.
Method 3 - Earthquake Kit
This is a kit that every building, room, and house should have. It should contain water, food supplies, a blanket, a torch, and basic first aid equipment. This is so that if you were to be trapped in a collapsed building, you could have the basics to increase your chance of survival.
Method 4 - Have Practise Drills
Whole cities can have practise drills so that they know what to do if an earthquake occurs. These may include the phrase "drop, cover and hold on" which tells you how to protect yourself, among other tips like finding a clear spot away from buildings, trees and power lines.
Method 5 - After The Shaking Has Stopped
It is adviced that people do the following;
- check for any injuries to self or nearby victims
- listen to the radio for instructions
- if trapped, wait for help
- if injured, try to stop bleeding by applying pressure
- if unsure, await rescue
Method 6 - Cross-Bracing
This is where a building, in particular large buildings and skyscrapers, has cross-bracing to help give extra strength to the structure and reduce the twisting of the building. This may stop the collapse of that building, saving lives inside and outside of it.
Method 7 - Automatic Window Shutters
In an earthquake, shattering glass is often the cause of many injuries. To help reduce this risk, automatic window shutters are installed to a building to stop the glass falling onto the people on the streets below. This means less people suffer from lacerations and bleeding to death.
Method 8 - Automatic Systems
Systems such as gas shut-offs and sprinklers should be made automatic to reduce the risk of fires in buildings. If a fire was to start, the sprinklers would help put it out. If a gas leak was to occur, the gas would be shut off immediately and so this would reduce the risk of fires. This is helpful in an earthquake because gas pipes are easily broken and will cause explosions and fires if introduced to sparks, which are likely from falling pylons, etc.
Method 9 - Better Materials
Materials such as reinforced concrete and strengthened steel would reduce the likelihood of things collapsing, therefore meaning less deaths and injuries. This is expensive, but worth it for the limited loss of life.
Method 10 - Springs and Foundations
Foundations set deeper into the ground will hold the building steady, and springs in the foundations will allow the building to move from side to side and provide flexibility. This results in a lowered likelihood of building collapse. Most buildings in earthquake-prone areas have this.