- Fitting devices to exhausts and industrial chimneys can reduce gas and particulate emissions. E.g. electrostatic precipitator-uses electrical charge to remove particles from gases.
- Catalytic converters help to reduce the emissions from car exhausts.
- Electric cars
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Land use Planning
- Urban planning can reduce levels of urban pollution.
- In Curitiba zones for heavy industry have been established outside the city centre, away from populated areas. There has also been a deliberate policy of mixing low-polluting land uses e.g. housing and light industry.
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- Many countries have adopted air quality control legislation, setting minimum levels of emissions and air quality.
- UK- air quality standards are set by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). Monitoring is widespread and air quality warnings are issued when pollutions levels are dangerously high.
- USA- series of Clean Air Acts since 1960s- successful in reducing the number of pollutants. E.g. Particualte emissions fell by 80% annd SO2 levels by 50%.
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- A number of cities operate road pricing or a congestion charge e.g. London.
- Singapore- Vehicle ownership is heavily taxed and motorists are charged electronically using an in-car smart card for driving into the city centre.
- In some cities, registration plates are used to restrict cars from entering city centres e.g. odd numbers on some days and even on others.
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