recent issues in C+D

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  • Created by: Tom
  • Created on: 14-04-14 12:06

Illegal arms+drugs trade

Trading in illegal drugs and arms causes huge social problems

  • UN's world drug report(2005) - global trade in illegal drugs was worth $320billion, supplying 200 million users. Amounts to 1/8 all global trade
  • Karofi and Mwanza(2006) - outlined negative effects of illegal drug trade. Pointed to consequences for health, change in social behaviour and funding of terrorism and war with profits
  • Transnational Institute in Amsterdam reported majority of armed conflicts are funded/part funded by illegal drugs trade
  • global communications and unregulated financial markets have made illegal trade in arms easier to carry out and harder to trace.
  • Karofi and Mivara - highlight role of drugs in destabilising societies
  • trade in small arms causes an estimated 80% of conflict deaths each year. Kofi Anan called small arms "weapons of mass destruction in slow motion" because of their impact in developing world.
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human trafficking causes modern day slavery

  • illegal movement of people for exploitation. Taken with force or deception
  • United Nations Report(2007) - Human trafficking trade worth $5b-$7b per year. One of the fastest growing global crimes
  • 2.5 million people worldwide in forced labour as result of human trafficking
  • global problem which has devastating effect on its victims
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Cybercrime = crime using the internet

  • Globalisation lead to massive increase in computer + internet use.
  • data theft
  • fraud
  • credit scams
  • email scams
  • illegal ***********
  • cybercrime breaches national borders, existing criminal law powerless to tackle it
  • extent of cybercrime hard to assess, but some suggest it will soon rival drugs trade in terms of profits
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environment/green crime damages the environment

  • something as small scale as fly-tipping, but on a global scale includes illegal trade of environmentally sensitive substances, trade in protected animals and unregulated logging and fishing
  • environmental impact of green crimes can be huge - ozone depletion. Several financial costs - World Bank estimated illegal logging cost timber producing countries 10-15 billion euros per year
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state crimes = crime committed by governments

  • governments break national or international criminal law
  • funding of terrorism, war crimes, genocide, links with organised crime, corruption, use of torture, crimes against human rights
  • conroversial as it is states themselves who define what is "justifyable" and what isn't.
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the media amplifies deviance in society

the media plays a powerful role in amplifying deviance in society

  • Interpretivists(interactionists) i.e Stanley Cohen(1972) argue the media helps to create the deviance it predicts or anticipates
  • Amplification of deviance:
  • media presents a distorted view of the level of crime
  • distorted view creates public concern
  • related incidents of crime and deviance are over reported and given more prominence
  • keeps the issue or problem high on public agenda
  • public wanted something done about the problem
  • police are more aware of the problem, so they discover more crime
  • police records reinforce the idea there is more crime and deviance
  • percieved risk of being a victim of crime is amplified by over-reporting by media. Creates public panic/outrage. Cohen refers to this as moral panic
  • Cohen developed idea of moral panics by studying Mods and Rockers in 1964, although new examples such as gun crime, asylum seekers etc
  • state response to moral panic is often to introduce stricter forms of social control
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the media amplifies deviance in society(continued)

the media plays a powerful role in amplifying deviance in society

  • Hall et al(1978) - national concern about mugging in early 70's was a moral panic. Media claimed mugging was a new type of crime, but violent street crime has been going on for centuries
  • some sociologists have suggested that the fear of global terrorism following 9/11 is another example of a current moral panics, and that terrorism threat has been exaggerated.


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Ian Taylor - economic liberalization = more crime

  • Taylor(1997,98) - economic deregulation has given people more opportunity to commit crimes like fraud, money laundering, tax evasion
  • globalisation and deregulation have made employment less secure and increased economic instability by reducing the cointrol states have over their economies. Increased unemployment and cuts in welfare have led to a rise in crime. People don't believe they will secure a real income.
  • globalisation partly to blame for growth of drugs trade in poverty affected areas
  • marketisation to blame for rising crime. Success becomes equated to owning expensive consumer goods - some turn to crime as a way of achieving this
  • Taylor argued it's too late to turn the economic clock back, but attempts should be made to recreate shared values of community to counteract the process of marketisation
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