Sustainable Cities: Curitiba, Brazil
- One price for any journey
- 5 arterial roads
- Bus system rather than metro
- Used by 75% of commuters on weekdays
- Large capacity buses
- Promoted in school, kids then encouraged parents
Parks, open spaces, and flood control:
- 1.5 million trees
- 54m2 per resident of open space
- 100km of cycle paths
- Parks act as floodplains
- Boom in 1970s
- Brazil became a NIC
- 550 factories, 50,000 jobs
- 6000 other enterprises
Land Use and Public Services:
- Easy access to public transport
- High building density along arterial roads
Return home schemes
- Social workers spot migrants and offer them a free journey home
- Farming schools- 10 million have benefited
Rebranding through sport: London 2012 Olympics
- 9000 people working on it
- Olympic Stadium will hold 80,000 people
- Also a aquatic centre
- New velodrome with water collecting roof
- Media centre- 20,000 journalists
- 10,000 tonnes of steel- less than Beijing
- London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games
- Will be one of the largest urban parks in Europe
- Will bring a range of transport arrangements
- 2,800 homes after the games
- Will provide amenities for the local community
- Park will be connected to the Thames estuary
- new jobs for local people
Rebranding through culture: Liverpool
Liverpool: European Capital of Culture 2008
Why might Liverpool need rebranding?
- Negative media image
- Decline of dockyards
- Matthew Street festival had a net economic impact of 7.2 million
- Economic benefit to Liverpool was £800 million.
- higher business start up and lower failure rates= Positive multiplier effect
- however Liverpool still had high unemployment when compared with other cities
- Increase in % of those with 5 or more GCSEs.
- Tourism rate has gone up 45%
- Hotel supply has tripled over a decade
- More than £300 million invested in infrastructure
- Attract investment
- But development is limited to a 2 mile radius
- Post productionism: Changes in farming practices, shifting emphasis away from maximum yields and towards a more sustainable future.
- Diversification: Setting up of non agricultural enterprises to boost revenue.
- 40% of farms now rely on diversified enterprises as their main source of income.
- Relied on EU's CAP
- Accounts for 48% of the EU budget as of 2006
- Alleviates competition from abroad
- Gives european farmers direct subsidies and guarantee markets
Why is Cornwall deprived?
- Oligopsony power of supermarkets driving prices down.
- Cheaper abroad
- Decreasing subsidies
- EU quotas allocate fish supplies to other EU countries
- Decreased supply
- Exhaustion of tin supplies
- Decreased price of tin from overseas competition
- More expensive for foreign countries to import UK tin
It's in the periphery, and has no major transport links, receives Obj 1 from the EU
How has Cornwall rebranded itself?
- Opened 1999
- World's biggest greenhouse, home to many tropical plants
- 750,000 visitors per year
- 600 jobs (95% local, 50% previously unemployed)
- Suppliers are local = +VE Multiplier Effect
- But congestion and pollution have increased. It's the biggest source of pollution in the area
Lobb's farm shop:
- Located in south Cornwall
- Was only making £30k per year from 800 acres
- Potential market of 450,000 people per year who visit nearby attractions
- 14 full time jobs
- £600,000 revenue in three years
How has Cornwall rebranded itself?
- Academy at Watergate Bay, employs 50 people, offers accomodation
- Rick Stein's restraunt in Taplow
- Jamie Oliver's restraunt employing disadvantaged teenage kids
- Combined universities in Cornwall e.g. University College Falmouth
Arts and Culture:
- E.g. Daphne du Marier festival
Rural deprivation facts
- 2 rural pubs per day shut down
- 1400 rural post offices per year shut down
- lack of affordable housing
- lack of transport and leisure facilities
- 1.5% have broadband connection in rural areas
Hull: the worst place to live in the UK
- Drug related crime
- isolated by estuary
- Low GCSE results= No skilled workforce
- Deindustrialisation- struggling against global competition
- High unemployment
- Cheapest homes in the UK
- 2001 census showed 7% population decrease
- Few fishing trawlers left
Rebranding schemes for Hull
- World's first submarium.
- Created 400 jobs
- £45.5 million project
- 2 million visitors to date
- £165 million project
- High quality offices
- New jobs
- Attracted investment
- Regenerating old docks
- In 2006, Hull was not in the top 10 places to live in the UK
History of Butetown
- 1839: Bute West Dock opened
- 1855: First train of steam coal reached Cardiff from the "Valleys"
- 1886: Coal exchange opened.
- 1940: Bombed during WW2
- 1960-1970: Docks shut down. Social deprivation followed
- 1987: CBDC starts up
Butetown: Place Profile
- A place profile is a description which economically, environmentally and socially describes a place.
- 3rd generation multicultural society
- Higher unemployment than the Cardiff average
- 80% of households are terraced or purpose built
- 2nd most deprived zone of Wales.
Lower Tier Super Output Areas:
- Btn01 has more than 50% with no basic qualifications
- Btn03= 10%
btn01 is the most deprived: highest unemployment, least qualifications, more dense housing
Cardiff Bay Development Corporation
- Set up 1987 to regenerate 1100 hectares of South Cardiff
1. Development of land around the Cardiff Bay. 372,000 sq metres of office space and 6000 new homes
2. Building of barrage to create a pernament waterfront
- Environment Quality increases as distance from the bay decreases (SRCC=-0.3)
- Lloyd George Avenue had higher env. quality even though it was no closer than Bute St
- Rebranding had been postive in all aspects, but less so socially, but definetly economically and socially.
- Big TNC presence
- Political presence of the Taffy Assembly
- Evidence of gentrification
- More systematic sampling needed, not just random
- Need to collect more geo-demographic data, to compare different people's opinions.
- Needed to return to collect more data and do an average
- Need to survey at different parts of the day E.g. Gang culture in Butetown
- Needed to ask people of different ethnic backgrounds, there were no black people in Cardiff bay.
- More sites needed East and West of the Bay for the Environment Quality Survey.
- needed to interview more local people rather than commuters
- Environment Quality survey worked well, easily comparable, but could have weighed the data so that more important aspects counted for more.
- Perception analysis was excellent, allowed easy comparing of SEE
- Rebranding: Developing a place to reposition its image and change people's idea of it, helping to "sell" the place to a target audience
- Valorisation: Exploiting what's already there.
- Reimaging: Positively changing the standing and reputation of a place through specific improvements
- Regenerating: Positively transforming the economy of a place that has displayed symptoms of decline.