- Created by: Beth
- Created on: 07-12-11 15:38
The Welsh Border 1067 ~ LAND
The English Edric the Wild wanted to regain the land that was taken off him to reward William's Earls.
He looted and pillaged Hereford, on the Welsh border.
William fitzOsbern (King William's best friend*) dealt with it, by trying to attack the rebels before they ran off and hid in Wales for a bit.
*King William was in Normandy
Dover/Kent 1067 ~ LAND
Count Eustace of Bologne and Welsh Princes tried to capture Dover.
In response, William made Odo of Bayeux (his 1/2 brother) Earl of Kent
The South-West 1068 ~ TAXES
The people of Exeter rebelled against taxes, but surrendered to William after an 18-day siege. William executed the ring leaders but then lowered the taxes.
Harold Godwinson's illegitimate sons landed on the Somerset coast but were repelled by Eadnoth the Staller (an Anglo-Saxon William supporter).
The North 1069-1070 ~ MONEY/INDEPENDENCE
Rebels, including Edgar Etheling, Waltheof (son of previous earl of Northumbria) and Gospatrick, burned down the Bishop's house in Durham - with the Norman earl Robert of Commines inside. This could have been to do with independence [everyone struggled to control the North e.g. Tostig], or to do with the crown [Edgar Etheling]. Rebelling spread to York, where Norman garrison (left to guard) came under attack. William stormed North to relieve them.
The Viking army in a fleet of 240 ships - led by Swegn's sons (Canute and Godwin's nephews) landed at Humber and marched on York, wanting money. They received support from Anglo-Scandinavians and Edgar Etheling. They seized York and encouraged revolts in Dorset, Cheshire, Somerset and Staffordshire.Malcolm - King of Scotland - allied himself with Edgar Etheling by marrying his sister Judith.
William devastated the countryside of the North and slaughtered all males over 5. He burned York and after Xmas, systematically destroyed Yorkshire. He marched through the Pennines ot Cheshire and took it, subdued Stafford and went back to Winchester. The Vikings accepted a bribe and left. Waltheof was given the earldom of Northumbria - he had a genuine reason for rebelling.
East-Anglia 1070-1071 ~ MONEY/POWER
King Swegn (Denmark), Hereward the Wake (Lincolnshire thegn) and Edwin & Morcar, who had lost their power and earldoms.
King Swegn occupied the Isle of Ely and Hereward, Edwin & Morcar joined him.
They looted and burned Peterborough Abbey.
William bought off the Danes, who left with much loot, leaving the English rebels to fend for themselves.
Morcar surrendered and was put in prison for the rest of his life.
Edwin fled North and was murdered by his own men.
Scotland 1072 ~ OPPORTUNISTIC
William had destroyed most of the North, so there weren't many people there. Malcolm (King of Scotland) decided to push down from the North, taking land for himself e.g. Durham and Cleveland
Malcolm met William at Abernethy and he apologised and recognised William as King of England. To prove it, he signed the Treaty of Abernethy and expelled Edgar Etheling from his court.
Revolt of the Norman Earls 1075 ~ POWER
The leader of this rebellion was Ralph de Gael, a Breton whose father had helped William in his conquest. Roger de Bretuil was also involved. He was the son of William fitzOsbern, the Earl of Hereford. Waltheof was involved, too - even after being given his Earldom of Northumbria back. As Ralph was a Breton, he automatically hated the Normans. He was encouraged to bring down William, but he appealed to Denmark for help first. Lanfranc, the Archbishop of Canterbury - who was acting as regent - urged William to stay in his duchy. William didn't pay any attention to this.
Roger was bottled up in Herefordshire by local Norman troops. Ralph retreated to Norwich, due to Odo and others, and Ralph left his wife in command while he fled to Brittany. Vikings arrived (Canute), where they looted and pillaged all the way up the East coast before going home. William returned to England at Xmas 1075. Breton rebels were blinded and/or murdered. Waltheof (who got cold feet and spilled his guts) was executed. Roger de Breteuil was banished from Herefordshire and imprisoned - because of his father's status.